Entrainement, préparation physique et physiologique cardio-respiratoire appliquée au rugby à XV

Abstract : Rugby union is a team sport characterized by high-intensity collisions and running efforts during gameswhich are position-dependent. Accounting for the five different positional groups, the first part of this thesisdemonstrated greater high-intensity activity in European cup when compared to the TOP14 rugby unioncompetition; with position-dependent variations in the frequency of repeated high-intensity efforts and the relativedistance of high-speed movements in forwards. A decrease in high-intensity movement parameters was observedduring the first and second halves of a competitive rugby union match. Indeed, the decrease in high-intensitymovements was earlier in forwards and outside backs who peaked in high-intensity accelerations between the lasttwo periods of the game, while backs were able to maintain their high-intensity activity throughout the match.Collectively, the capacity for a player to repeat high-intensity efforts during a rugby union game varied by thelevel of competition and was influenced by the onset of fatigue. In this context, the second part of this thesis was to conduct a repeated-sprint training in hypoxia. Hypoxia was induced by voluntary hypoventilation at low lungvolume. This training protocol has largely improved the repeated-sprint ability performance in highly-trainedrugby union players after seven training sessions of hypoventilation, whereas it was unaltered in the controlnormoxic group. Such training demands in rugby union (characterised by repeated high-intensity efforts indynamic (running) and static (weightlifting, fighting)) have a specific impact on left ventricular remodelling. Thelast part of this thesis, using 2D-speckle-tracking resting echocardiography, demonstrated that LV hypertrophywas greater in forwards when compared to backs and to control group. Systolic function remained unchanged, butdiastolic function was altered, mainly in forwards, with an increase in filling pressures and a decrease in leftventricular relaxation. Finally, left ventricular twisting was similar while rugby union players exhibited lowerapical and higher basal rotations velocities compared to controls. Collectively, this CIFRE research programprovided new data in activity analysis and training methods that are widely applicable to a range of rugby unionprograms and data on left ventricular morphology, function and mechanics for the clinician.
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Charly Fornasier Santos. Entrainement, préparation physique et physiologique cardio-respiratoire appliquée au rugby à XV. Autre. Université d'Avignon; Université de Lausanne, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018AVIG0716⟩. ⟨tel-02184397⟩

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