Pollinisation intégrée des cultures : intégrer les mécanismes liés à la température pour évaluer l'offre et la demande en pollinisation

Abstract : Insects contribute to the pollination of 70% of the species cultivated today around the world. With the agriculture intensification in the early twentieth century, farmers began to introduce honey bees colonies into their entomophilous crops to provide pollination service. With the growing recognition of the major role played by wild insects in crop pollination, the concept of integrated crop pollination recently emerged, encouraging the combination of introduced and wild pollinating insects by adapting agricultural practices to ensure sustainable pollination of crops. But the introduction of managed pollinating insects is still an empirical practice that lacks technical references to be implemented with precision. The general objective of this thesis was to provide elements to develop an objective method to define the operational unit load of honey bees to be introduced per unit area of target crop to complement wild pollinating fauna so that pollination is not a limiting factor for production.We worked on a male fertile and a male sterile oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) lines, hybrid seed productions being entirely dependent on insects for pollination in this species. We were able to determine (i) the minimum number of viable pollen grains to be deposited on stigma so that seed set was complete depending on the temperature, (ii) the duration after anthesis during which the pollen must be deposited on the stigma so that seed set was complete depending on the temperature, (iii) the length of time a flower secretes nectar as a function of temperature for each of the two lines, and (iv) the rate of this nectar secretion as a function of temperature for each of the two lines. We also validated a method for rapid assessment of the size of honey bee stocking rate introduced into entomophilous crops, commonly used in some countries, taking into account temperature.From these elements, we proposed to introduce the concepts of supply and demand in pollination of a target crop, in order to quantify the pollination deficits and the number of pollinating insects to introduce to complete these deficits. These first elements provide a basis for constructing a mechanistic model of integrated pollination management, to predict the number of pollinating insects to be introduced into a crop given its climatic, landscape and varietal context.
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Stan Chabert. Pollinisation intégrée des cultures : intégrer les mécanismes liés à la température pour évaluer l'offre et la demande en pollinisation. Autre [q-bio.OT]. Université d'Avignon, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018AVIG0703⟩. ⟨tel-02183129⟩

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