Séquençage ciblé en tant qu'outil diagnostique et pronostique dans le lymphome à cellules du manteau

Abstract : Lymphoma is a cancer of the lymph nodes which are organs in which immune cells, particularly the antibody producing B cells, proliferate and differentiate before circulating in the blood and tissues to fight infection. B cell lymphoid cancers – ‘B cell lymphoma’ arise as a consequence of the occurrence of gene mutations in B cells. By affecting the functions of key B cell genes, these mutations drive the malignant transformation of the affected B cells which then begin to divide abnormally eventually destroying normal lymph node organization and function. The lymph node is divided into distinct micro-anatomical compartments or zones which are called (from the inner to outer most compartment – germinal centre, mantle zone, and marginal zone). B cell lymphoma classification follows this general organization and classifies tumours depending on the compartment of origin of the particular tumour B cell population. This classification thus defines lymphoma according to a ‘histological subtype’ with defined clinic-biological features. Among these subtypes, mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a particularly aggressive form of B lymphoid cancer. This type of lymphoma is characterised by successive relapses and short survival (median is 4 to 5 years), although some patients can show long survival. Predictive biomarkers of this clinical behavior are lacking. This project aims to address this question. More specifically we propose to perform whole ‘exome’ sequencing – i.e. sequencing of all protein coding sections of all known protein coding genes in the genome – of the tumour B cell DNA from patients who show refractory or early relapsing disease compared to patients who show relatively long survival. By doing this genome scale study we hope to identify new gene mutations that can serve as molecular predictors of survival and bring new knowledges in the understanding between genetics and epigenetics in MCL.
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Sarah Bertrand. Séquençage ciblé en tant qu'outil diagnostique et pronostique dans le lymphome à cellules du manteau. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017GREAV033⟩. ⟨tel-02182943⟩

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