Etude cinétique d’une réponse immune associée à une régression tumorale : les lymphocytes T et les cellules myéloïdes coopèrent au sein de la tumeur après vaccination

Abstract : Most oncoimmunology studies are performed in an immune failure context of progressing tumor. They rarely describe tumor regressions, when the immune response is efficient. As a result, the literature tends to highlight the cytotoxic role of CD8+ T cell or their anergy in the context of tumor progression, caused by myeloid cells such as the MDSC or M2 polarized macrophages, considered as protumoral. My PhD work has been focused on the immune response in a context of tumor regression. TC1 cells transplanted s.c. in C57 BL6 J mice, give rise to solid tumors of approximately 6 mm diameter 11 days later. At that time (day 0), mice are vaccinated peritumorally for a priming with a composite vaccine containing the subunit B of the Shiga toxin coupled to E7 peptide from HPV16 (present on TC1), combined with the IFNα. A week later (day 7), a boost is made. After the boost, tumor growth stops and the tumor regress. Kinetic cytometric analysis revealed a significant immune infiltrate during and prior to tumor regression. The nature of this infiltrate varies with time. On day 5, a myeloid infiltrate is observed, followed by a lymphocytic infiltrate which is conspicuous after day 8. Depletion of CD8+ T cells inhibits tumor regression, while in CXCR3- /- mice, in which the CD8+ are not depleted but their recruitment is severely affected, tumor regression is possible despite a very low CD8+ T cell infiltrate. This suggests that some effectors, other than cytotoxic T cells, are required for tumor regression, including probably myeloid cells that infiltrate the tumor before T cells. The analysis of this population shows an activation of monocytes and macrophages (MHC II+) with a peak of activation around day 9, early in the regression. The cytotoxic capacity of these cells was tested in vitro, by depositing F4/80+ cells from vaccinated tumors or not, on a TC1 cell monolayers in culture. Only myeloid cells from vaccinated tumors appear to kill tumor cells, and adding an anti-TNFα inhibits this cytotoxicity. This shows that after immunization, monocytes/macrophages are capable of killing tumor cells. A partial depletion of macrophages at the time of vaccination, after treatment with PLX3397 (CSF1R inhibitor), reduces the vaccine efficacy. Myeloid cells contribute significantly to the observed tumor regression, and their action involves interactions with CD8+ T cells. This hypothesis is consistent with the observation of tumors in vaccinated IFNϒ- /- mice, in which the vaccine efficacy is also inhibited. This thesis shows that after an appropriate stimulation, for instance, here, by mimicking a viral infection, myeloid cells can actively participate in tumor regression.
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Maxime Thoreau. Etude cinétique d’une réponse immune associée à une régression tumorale : les lymphocytes T et les cellules myéloïdes coopèrent au sein de la tumeur après vaccination. Immunologie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016USPCB049⟩. ⟨tel-02180608⟩

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