Etude de l'effet de mutations du gène SHANK3 dans les TSA à partir de neurones corticaux humains dérivés de cellules souches pluripotentes induites

Abstract : Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting 1% of population ; characterised by impairments in social interaction and reciprocal communication as well as repetitive and stereotyped behaviors. The work of the laboratory lead to the identification of several genes associated with ASD, among which genes of the synaptic pathway such as SHANK. The SHANK proteins are scaffolding proteins of the post-synaptic density (PSD) of glutamatergic neurons and interact with several partners. In my thesis project, we were particularly interested in SHANK3 mutations. First, Shank3 mutations represent up to 2.12% of ASD cases with moderate to high ID. A SHANK3 deficit leads to the alteration of the synaptic functioning. Indeed, studies of mice KO for SHANK3 gene showed a decrease of the dendritic spines density, of the PSD size and of the expression of SHANK3 partners. My principal model of analysis consisted in the reprogrammation of fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Then, the iPSCs were selectively derived into cortical neurons. Our studies were focus on the analysis of functional consequences of SHANK3 de novo mutations found within 4 patients. These mutations are heterozygous and within the exon 21. They result in a premature stop codon. In parallel, we obtained cells from 4 healthy individuals. The work was about the morphological and functional aspects. We analysed the mutations effects on the maturation and morphological caracteristics of the dendritic spines. We finalized a protocol that enabled a detailed analysis of the spine dendritic 3D morphology and their maturation follow-up. A important result was the observation of a decrease of the spine density on pyramidal neurons dendrites from patients compared to those from controls. Moreover, spines maturation was not fully accomplished but was not much different in its evolution between individuals (controls vs patients). Then, we used two functional skills : calcium imaging and electrophysiological experiments. The electrophysiological data are in progress. To conclude, we succeeded in the obtention of glutamatergic cortical neurons and to maintain them in culture during 40 days in order to realize some analysis at a sufficient maturation stage to observe morphological and functional phenotypes. We mainly observed a decrease of the dendritic spines density and maturation for the neurons from patients, with alterations of the spontaneous calcium oscillations.
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Laura Gouder. Etude de l'effet de mutations du gène SHANK3 dans les TSA à partir de neurones corticaux humains dérivés de cellules souches pluripotentes induites. Neurobiologie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016USPCB089⟩. ⟨tel-02180584⟩

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