L'élaboration des nouveaux (Bio)-matériaux et leurs applications dans le domaine médical

Abstract : The confinement of antibiotics in inorganic matrices results in a class of materials particularly suitable for the conservation of their activities. This thesis aims to: (1) establish a correlation between the localization of antibiotics in HDL matrices and their antibacterial activity, (2) define the most appropriate matrix to prevent the antibiotics thermal and / or photon degradation. We were interested in studying the influence of the antibiotic localization in the material and the effect on the material antibacterial activity and whether the HDL phase can protect the antibiotics from thermal and / or photon degradation.In this work, we used double lamellar hydroxide (HDL) type Zn2Al, Mg2Al, Ni2Al and Mn2Al as supports for different types of antibiotics (cyclin, polypeptide and enzymatic). We investigated the immobilization of two cyclin types tetracycline (TCH) and oxytetracycline (OXY), by two methods (coprecipitation and anion exchange). We investigated the impact of UV irradiation and / or storage at different temperatures (30, 60 and 120°C) to evaluate their antibacterial activities. The results showed that the antibiotics are localized on the grain surface of the HDL phase. The materials prepared by coprecipitation have a higher release rate and antibacterial activity than those prepared by anion exchange. A significant decrease in the antibacterial activity after storage at high temperature and exposure to UV light was observed. This leads to the conclusion that the HDL phase accelerates the degradation of antibiotics under the effect of temperature and UV light. We investigated the immobilization of nisin in different HDL phases, taking into account the effect of the molar ratio, of the matrix, of the anion and the morphology. The results showed that the immobilization of nisin in the different HDL phases does not affect its antibacterial activity at 4°C. On the other hand, we noteiced that the activity of nisin is almost temperature sensitive under confinement. The localization of nisin plays therefore a very important rolefor the best protection of the antibacterial activity. Finally, we immobilized lysozyme in the various HDL phases. Our results showed that lysozyme is localized on the surface of the material grains, one notes a more important abatement for free lys than adsorbed LYS. This can be due to denaturation of the enzyme site.
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Zaineb Bouaziz. L'élaboration des nouveaux (Bio)-matériaux et leurs applications dans le domaine médical. Autre. Université Montpellier; Université de Carthage (Tunisie), 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018MONTS115⟩. ⟨tel-02180552⟩

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