Valorisation du cardanol et d’acides et d’aldéhydes lipidiques dans le domaine des matériaux polymères

Abstract : One of the major challenges in the field of polymers is the substitution of oil-based molecules for the development of monomers, polymers and polymer additives. The topic of this thesis is focused on the valorization of bio-sourced molecules and particularly, cardanol and vegetable oil derivatives. Since the scope of polymers is broad, we have chosen to focus on the following three major issues.At first, we were interested in the plasticization of PVC, which is most often carried out by phthalates, a family of oil-based esters strongly suspected to be endocrine disruptors. Alternative additives were thus synthesized by simple chemical reactions from cardanol and fatty esters. Good thermal stabilities and satisfactory plasticizing properties were obtained. Finally, toxicity and ecotoxicity tests have demonstrated the absence of a disruptive impact on the secretion of sex hormones and the non-toxicity towards the environment of these bio-sourced plasticizers.In a second step, we were interested in the chemistry of phenolic resins usually prepared from phenol and formaldehyde, two molecules classified as CMR substances. Thus, a bio-sourced phenol, cardanol, and a bio-sourced aldehyde, nonanal, were reacted to reach flexible phenolic resins. This peculiar property is the result of internal plasticization of the pendant lipid chains within the polymer network. By this example, the interest of vegetable oil derivatives for the production of flexible materials was demonstrated. Finally, a compromise between the flexibility of phenolic resins and their chemical and thermal resistances was reached.Finally, we turned to the development of crosslinked polyurethanes from a fatty ester, a fatty diester and a triglyceride exhibiting alpha-hydroxyketone functions (collaboration with the CASYEN team of the ICBMS). The contribution of the alpha-ketone function on the reactivity of the related to the isocyanate reagent is only modest compared to isolated alcohol type derivatives (castor oil) and alcohol associated with another alcohol function ( triglyceride 1,2-diol). Nevertheless, the presence of intramolecular interactions from ketone groups made possible to enhance the thermal stability of the PU materials and to develop flexible crosslinked PUs by internal plasticization, as in the case of phenolic resins.This thesis brings out the advantages provided by the use of lipid phenols such as cardanol and fatty chains for the improvement of thermal stability and flexibility of polymer materials.
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Benoît Briou. Valorisation du cardanol et d’acides et d’aldéhydes lipidiques dans le domaine des matériaux polymères. Autre. Université Montpellier, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018MONTS114⟩. ⟨tel-02180529⟩

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