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Optimisation des posologies des antiépileptiques chez l’enfant à partir de données pharmacocinétiques pédiatriques et adultes

Abstract : Children greatly differ from adults not only in terms of size but also in physiological terms. Indeed, developmental changes occur during growth due to maturation. These processes occur in a nonlinear fashion and can cause pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences. Thus, oppositely to common practice, it is not appropriate to scale pediatric doses directly and linearly from adults. The study of pharmacokinetics in children is then essential to determine those pediatric dosages. The more commonly used methodology is population analysis through non-linear mixed effects models. This method allows the analysis of sparse and unbalanced data. In return, the lack of individual data has to be balanced with the inclusion of more individuals. This can be a problem when the indication of treatment is a rare disease, as are epileptic syndromes of childhood. In this case, extrapolation of adult pharmacokinetic models to the pediatric population may be interesting. The objective of this thesis was to evaluate the dosage recommendations of antiepileptic drugs when pediatric pharmacokinetic data are sufficient to be modeled, and when they are not, extrapolating adequately adult information. Firstly, a parent-metabolite model of oxcarbazepine and its monohydroxy derivative (MHD) was developed in epileptic children aged 2 to 12 years. This model showed that younger children require higher doses, as well as patients co-treated with enzyme inducers. A model was also developed for epileptic children aged 1 to 18 years treated with a valproic acid sustained release microsphere formulation. This model took into account the flip-flop associated with the formulation and the non-linear relationship between clearance and dose caused by a saturable protein binding. Again, the need for higher doses for younger children was highlighted. Then, an adult model of vigabatrin was extrapolated to children to determine which doses allow to achieve exposures similar to adults in resistant focal onset seizures. From the results obtained, which are in agreement with the conclusions of clinical trials, we have been able to propose an ideal maintenance dose for this indication. Finally, we studied the relevance of extrapolation by theoretical allometry in a context of non-linearity with the example of stiripentol. We concluded that this method seems to provide good predictions from the age of 8, unlike the linear elimination molecules where it seems correct from 5 years. In conclusion, we were able to test and compare different approaches to help determine dosing recommendations in children. The study of pediatric pharmacokinetics in specific trials remains essential for the proper use of drugs.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, July 10, 2019 - 10:03:06 PM
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Christelle Rodrigues. Optimisation des posologies des antiépileptiques chez l’enfant à partir de données pharmacocinétiques pédiatriques et adultes. Neurosciences [q-bio.NC]. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018USPCB226⟩. ⟨tel-02179561⟩



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