Expérimentations de pratiques agroécologiques réalisées par des agriculteurs : proposition d’un cadre d’analyse à partir du cas des grandes cultures et du maraîchage diversifié dans le département de la Drôme

Abstract : The intensification of ecological processes proposed by agroecology is highly dependent on the agricultural context. A renewal of farming knowledge is necessary to adapt each agro-ecological practice. In this thesis, we studied farmers’ experiments, defined as a process of testing practices that embody hypotheses both on their implementation and on the targeted agro-ecological processes. Our work is based on surveys of 17 farmers, mainly Drôme farmers, who were either diversified market gardeners or cereal farmers.We have formalized the farmers’ experiments with two notions: the experimental situation (SE) and the experimentation itinerary (ITE). They concern respectively short time (annual or infra-annual) and long time (multi-year) and are the subject of the first two chapters of the results. In the first one, we built an analytical framework that includes design, implementation and evaluation phases. From this framework, we studied the diversity of a sample of 181 SEs and identified 10 groups of SEs organized into 4 clusters. The typology obtained depends on a particular variable which is the type of link to previous SEs. In the second chapter of the result, we have deepened these links by focusing on ITEs, defined as the combination of different SEs on a particular agro-ecological theme. We identified 4 types of ITEs that differ in their experimental intensity, the links between SEs and the emission or not of new experimental branches.The third chapter of the result deals with the question of farmers developing knowledge through their experiments. After having characterized different forms of knowledge, more or less stabilized, we propose three processes for the development of advanced knowledge through experimentation.The SE/ITE model is promising to support farmers. The chronological timeline of SEs organized in ITEs represents a potential reflexivity tool.
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Maxime Catalogna. Expérimentations de pratiques agroécologiques réalisées par des agriculteurs : proposition d’un cadre d’analyse à partir du cas des grandes cultures et du maraîchage diversifié dans le département de la Drôme. Sciences agricoles. Université d'Avignon, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018AVIG0705⟩. ⟨tel-02179262⟩

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