Cognition sociale et cerveau social dans les troubles du développement de l’enfant

Abstract : Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by abnormal social interactions. Eye-tracking studies have objectively reported social perception abnormalities in ASD, characterized by a decrease of gaze towards social stimuli. Brain imaging studies, using PET and SPECT methods, have revealed a decrease in cerebral blood flow (CSF) at rest in the temporal regions, particularly in the superior temporal sulcus (STS), in children with ASD. Nowadays, it is possible to measure rest CBF with MRI using arterial spin labeling (ASL) sequence. In this thesis, we confirmed the decreased in rest CBF within the STS in children with ASD using MRI-ASL, which could allow its use as a biomarker in ASD. We also suggest that rest CBF could be a more relevant index for studying basic brain function in ASD. In addition, we performed a cross-sectional eye-tracking study using the same stimuli over a wide age-range and showed the impact of age on social perception in ASD and in typical development. Finally, we showed social perception abnormalities, using eye-tracking, and cortical functioning abnormalities within the STS using MRI-ASL, in children with posterior fossa arachnoid cyst. A better understanding of the social difficulties underlying this disorder could have a major impact on patient outcome.
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Elza Rechtman. Cognition sociale et cerveau social dans les troubles du développement de l’enfant. Neurosciences [q-bio.NC]. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018USPCB005⟩. ⟨tel-02178994⟩

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