L'identité narrative dans la clinique des enfants violents accueillis en ITEP

Abstract : Our research focuses on the narrative identity of children aged 6 to 12 who are living with ITEP. Psychologist with "violent children" for five years, our thesis is the fruit of an original approach, which is based on both psychopathology, psychoanalysis, philosophy and different cultural sources. For Paul Ricoeur, philosopher, the man is a resolutely narrative being, a being for whom the imperious need to tell the world and to tell stories is the basis of its very essence. It is a question of considering what remains of the singularity of a being over time, the way he lives and tells himself. Through this concept comes a dialectic between oneself and the other, between oneself and the stranger in oneself (sameness and ipseity). The narrative identity is the possibility of a reflexive difference with the event, it is the foundation of the experience with regard to temporality. It is therefore an aspect of self-awareness, an experience of intimacy, the expression of subjectivity as it can be shared and transformed. However, in the clinic of violent children, we observe that all have in common to fail to constitute a story of life, to forge an experience. Everything happens as if the sense of continuity in existence (Winnicott) was a perforated canvas, constantly put back on the job. The psychopathology of so-called "violent" children is complex, it is composed of a very heterogeneous symptomatology, anchored although possibly labile, which originates in the early links. We note the prevalence of learning difficulties in reading and writing, violent acts rather than a putting into words, a lived enamelled ruptures and traumatic events, a difficult identity and filial anchorage and identifications in pain. At the beginning of our research, our work was guided by what we saw as the difficulties experienced by the abusive child in telling a story, let alone in narrating his own story. But this approach is prolonged in that it is a question of wondering why the narrative identity is a key concept to make a contribution to the understanding of the psychic processes at stake. We thus follow the path of the processes of thought obsessed on an unincorporated timebase as a latency period. In addition, it is questioning the relevance and the limits of such a psychotherapeutic approach, questions that we ask from 12 vignettes and 8 cases of children followed in analytical psychotherapy 1 to 3 times per week during 1 at 4 years old. Our research methodology is based on retranscriptions of psychotherapy sessions through play, drawing, imaginary dialogues and speech. We have thought of our clinical practice as a space to set in motion the processes of subjectivation, thus choosing to fire any wood from the material brought by the child. We focus our attention on symbolization processes and their hindrances, perceptible in the transfer. The handling of this one allows to replay present issues, too present but not psychised, in the link to the first objects of these children. We deviate resolutely from an evaluative and behavioral logic to assert the value and timeliness of the transfer clinic in this field, which can be called clinical extreme. We mainly rely, from Freudian metapsychology, on the contributions of Winnicott, Ferenczi and the Lyons school. We specify in what Ricerc philosophy constitutes a figure of otherness for the psychoanalysis and release the epistemological lines of tension between the one and the other field. Finally, our research is driven by a political aim: we wish to testify to the humanitarian urgency that is the situation of these children at the same time as the necessity, the interest and the fertility of the therapeutic work with them.
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Mélanie Cacchioli-Georgelin. L'identité narrative dans la clinique des enfants violents accueillis en ITEP. Psychologie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018USPCB128⟩. ⟨tel-02178957⟩

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