Relations entre potentiel intellectuel, anxiété et dépression chez l'enfant

Abstract : Gifted children and adolescents may present a wide range of psychological disorders, justifying specialized care in a child psychiatric care facility. Among these disorders, anxiety and depression are frequently cited by parents. To better understand the characteristics and specificities of anxiety and depressive disorders in the population of gifted children and adolescents, we have conducted a review of literature on epidemiological studies of anxiety and depression in gifted children and adolescents. There are some discrepant results. Methodological biases (lack of consensus in the definition of giftedness, bias of anxiety or depression assessment, small sample sizes) may explain, in part, the observed contradictory results. Then, we conducted an exploratory study with the main objective of comparing anxiety and depressive disorders in gifted and non gifted children and adolescents, trying to account for these biases. Our study has therefore been carried out in large samples of gifted children and non gifted children using different sources of observation (parental assessment, child self-assessment and child psychiatric assessment). Concerning anxiety disorders, the results of study 1 suggest that gifted children (Total IQ130) would be more anxious than non-gifted children (Total IQ <130) according to the ICD-10 and DSM-5 criteria. In addition, according to the child's self-assessment with R-CMAS, children with high verbal potential (VCI130) would perceive themselves to be more anxious than children with no high verbal potential (VCI<130), whereas children with high perceptual reasoning (PRI130) would perceive themselves to be less anxious than children with no high perceptual reasoning (PRI <130). High VCI would thus have a negative effect on anxiety perceived by the child, whereas high PRI would have a protective effect on anxiety. Concerning depressive disorders, the results of study 2 show that, according to the parents' assessment, children with high verbal potential (VCI130) would have more depressive disorder than children with no high verbal potential (VCI< 130). According to child self-assessment using MDI-C, gifted children (Total IQ130), but also children with high potential in working memory (WMI130) or in speed processing (PSI130), would describe themselves less depressive on the total score of MDI-C than non-gifted children. Finally, the results of study 3 analyzing the correlations between the R-CMAS and MDI-C scores confirm the protective effects of PRI on anxiety, and WMI or PSI on depression as highlighted in studies 1 and 2. Future studies are requested to confirm these results and to better understand the mechanisms of the protective and negative effects of certain intellectual dimensions and domains.
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Solen Kermarrec. Relations entre potentiel intellectuel, anxiété et dépression chez l'enfant. Sciences cognitives. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017USPCB216⟩. ⟨tel-02178693⟩

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