Invasion d’Aedes albopictus dans les milieux forestiers tropicaux et potentiel pour l’émergence de virus zoonotiques au Brésil

Abstract : Zoonotic emerging diseases are increasing during the last decades. There is an urgent need to understand the mechanisms of this emergence, in particular to study the underlying ecological factors determining spill-over events, the transfer from animals to humans. Being native from Asia, the tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus arrived to Brazil in the 80’s being nowadays established in 60% of brazilian cities. Brazilian forests are considered a hotspot of wildlife biodiversity, harbouring hundreds of zoonotic arboviruses, suffering human landscape transformation and surrounding large urban cities, an optimal breeding ground for the emergence of zoonotic diseases. This species represents a major concern for the transmission of epidemic arboviruses (dengue, chikungunya, Zika) but also a potential threat for the emergence of zoonotic diseases due to its presence in urban/forest interfaces, its opportunistic feeding behavior and its vector competence to transmit numerous viruses. Thus, Ae. albopictus might potentially participate as a bridge vector for the transfer to urban environments of zoonotic arboviruses that are circulating on Brazilian forests. In this study we evaluate the potential of this species to act as a bridge vector between wildlife and humans. For this propose (i) we performed a bibliographic research and analysis focusing on three key components for assessing the ability of a mosquito to ensure interspecies transfer of arboviruses in sylvatic areas: 1) the capacity to exploit natural larval breeding sites, 2) blood-feeding behaviour and 3) the vector competence for arboviruses. (ii) We investigated from fieldwork the colonization, dispersion, host feeding and potential impact of biodiversity patterns of Ae. albopictus in the urban/forest interface in Brasil. This field work was realized from ten forest-fragments ecosystems in tree Brazilians Biome: Biome Amazonia in Adolpho Ducke forest reserve-Manaus; Biome Mata Atlantica in Pedra Branca forest reserve- Rio de Janeiro, in the urban forest fragment Salvador, Serra, Belo Horizonte and in the rural forest fragment Domingos Martins, Simonésia, Casimiro de Abreu, Marica-RJ; Biome Cerrado in Morro dos Macacos forest – Goiania. This work confirmed that Ae. albopictus has the capacity to colonize natural breeding sites with the opportunistic feeding behavior with a preference for human blood sources, followed by other mammals and birds. We observe that the colonization and dispersion process is limited to the edge forest with an impact in species composition in this environments. We observed that this mosquitos is vector competence for 13 arbovirus from bibliographic recherché, but no arbovirus was detected from fildework collected mosquitos. Globally our results confirm and estimates the potential role of Ae. albopictus to act as a bridge vector of zoonotic diseases at the forest/urban interfaces in Brazil. This work opens a research area in which further investigations may assess the potential spill-over risk of zoonotic disease from forested to urban areas with the aim to mitigate potential future viral emergences.
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Taissa Pereira dos Santos. Invasion d’Aedes albopictus dans les milieux forestiers tropicaux et potentiel pour l’émergence de virus zoonotiques au Brésil. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Montpellier, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019MONTG012⟩. ⟨tel-02174873⟩

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