Analyse intégrative des ARN longs non-codants chez le chien et leurs implications dans le mélanome oral canin, modèle des mélanomes humains

Abstract : Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a family of heterogeneous RNAs that play a major role in many cancers, particularly in melanomas. The dog is a natural and spontaneous model for the comparative genetic analysis of cancers and, the annotation of the canine genome has recently been enriched with the identification of over 10,000 lncRNAs. In order to perform functional bioinformatic predictions of lncRNAs, we have characterized the expression patterns of canine lncRNAs from 26 distinct tissues representative of the major functions of the organism. We defined the tissue specificity of lncRNAs expression and inferred their potential functionality by comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses with human data from the ENCODE project (ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements). As in humans and mice, we show that a large proportion of canine lncRNAs (44%) are expressed specifically within a tissue. Using a comparative genomic approach, we have identified more than 900 orthologue lncRNAs between humans and dogs, and we show that for 26% of them, tissue expression patterns are also significantly conserved (p < 0.05). In the study of canine melanomas, we investigated the lncRNAs from RNA-seq data from 52 tumour/control samples of oral melanoma. We identified more than 750lncRNAs differentially expressed between tumour and control (FDR < 0.01), of which more than 100 were conserved with humans. These lncRNAs are good candidates to study the regulation of tumour progression of melanomas in dogs and can be evaluated for their diagnostic and therapeutic potential in human and veterinary medicine.
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Céline Le Béguec. Analyse intégrative des ARN longs non-codants chez le chien et leurs implications dans le mélanome oral canin, modèle des mélanomes humains. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Rennes 1, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018REN1B030⟩. ⟨tel-02173770⟩

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