Stabilité du virus de la grippe dans l'environnement : influence des protéines virales

Abstract : The transmission of Influenza A viruses (IAV), either airborne in mammals or oro-faecal in aquatic birds, submits viral particle to a wide range of environmental conditions. These environmental conditions modulate IAV survival outside the host, which is also dependent on the viral subtype or strains. To date, the molecular drivers of IAV environmental persistence remain to be identified. In order to identify IAV molecular drivers of the environmental persistence, we generated different reassortant viruses between two H1N1 viruses that do not have the same stability outside the host. To this purpose, we performed survival kinetic and compared the inactivation slope of generated reassortant viruses in our controlledenvironment, using a real time cell analysis system. Our results demonstrate that the hemagglutinin (HA) and the neuraminidase (NA) are the main viral segments driving IAV environmental persistence. In addition, mutations driving viral stability in the environment were identified in the HA and NA amino-acid sequences. We also demonstrated that synonymous mutations introduced in the HA, using a codon-optimization strategy, drive the environmental persistence of IAV. The HA stability at low pH, HA surface expression levels in infected cells and the number of calcium binding sites of the NA were alternately changed by the mutations described in our study, indicating that these are stability determinants of IAV survival outside the host. Then, the sequential events of viral entry were analysed with fluorescence microscopy assays, showing that viral particles being exposed for a long period in saline water at 35°C are still able to bind their cellular receptor whereas the HA-mediated fusion within the endosome is not possible anymore. These two steps of the viral cycle are mainly mediated by the HA protein. Altogether, these result highlight the importance of the HA and the NA proteins, driving the environmental persistence of IAV. Given the known diversity of these two proteins in nature, this arouses interest in studying IAV environmental persistence at a more global scale. Such study could improve our knowledge on IAV ecology and epidemiology. Epidemiologic and climatic data analyse of human seasonal influenza viruses during 5 years and from 13 countries revealed that H1N1 virus and H3N2 virus distribution differs according to the mean weekly temperature in these countries. We then compared the H1N1 virus and H3N2 virus persistence on stainless steel surface at 4 °C and 20 °C, and the preliminary results suggest that IAV seasonal subtypes distribution might be partly regulated by their stability according to the temperature
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Thomas Labadie. Stabilité du virus de la grippe dans l'environnement : influence des protéines virales. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017USPCC274⟩. ⟨tel-02173339v2⟩

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