Critique du regard colonial dans les arts plastiques de Taïwan de 1945 à 2012

Abstract : This thesis analyses the relationship between the idea of decolonization and the plastic arts in Taiwan in the second half of the twentieth century. The historical context of Taiwan has been marked by a number of colonization experiences, such as the Japanese colonization, but also the quasi-colonization represented by the coercive practices and the authoritarianism of the nationalist party of China, as well as the American cultural imperialism. A historical overview of the colonial situation in Taiwan reflects the nested character of its culture. The selected corpus includes seven works bearing a specific view: the painting Pastoral of Lee Shih-chiao in 1946; the portrait of Chiang Kai-shek painted in oil by Li Mei-shu in 1975; a series of reworked photos Journeys in Time of Chen Shun-chu from 2001 to 2003; the merged portrait The Three Principles of the People Reunite China of Mei Dean-e in 1991; Representa.tiff of Chou Yu-cheng exposed three times under different formats between 2008 and 2012; École de Great Taipei Autumn Exhibition by Huang Hua-cheng in 1966 ; the video work Empire’s Borders from 2008 to 2009 by Chen Chieh-jen. We make the hypothesis that these works are each representative of an era and has a particular relationship with the colonization issue. Some express a colonized point of view: some of them import, for example the Japanese or European aesthetic codes. Institutions – official art exhibitions – convey the principles. Other works by the following generation of artists take a critical look at these cultural references inherited from the colonial moment. These artists question also the dominant values. This raises the question: which actors implemented a process of decolonization of the arts from 1945 to 2012? Is this action completed? By entering into an approach of cultural history and borrowing the one from the sociology of arts, we have analysed the methods of the works’ elaboration and their critical reception; the role of institutions of mediation, especially museums. The analysis enables to identify a switchover between works placed in a colonial context and works that either criticize them or free themselves from. This represents two modalities of the critical point of view on the colonial process at work in the plastic art.
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Yen-Ling Chen. Critique du regard colonial dans les arts plastiques de Taïwan de 1945 à 2012. Sociologie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019USPCA027⟩. ⟨tel-02172336⟩

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