Identification et caractérisation du lignage épithélial dans la glande mammaire bovine

Abstract : The development of the mammary epithelium relies on the mammary stem cells which, by proliferating and differentiating, give rise to the luminal, basal and progenitor cells of the epithelial lineage. The stem cells are then solicited at each gestation to regenerate a part of the epithelium. In this thesis work, we aim at identifying and characterizing in depth the different types of cell constitutive of the bovine mammary epithelial cell lineage by flow cytometry and cell sorting approaches. We defined and studied epithelial (sub)populations committed to mammary development at puberty. At this stage, the mammary epithelium contains rare mammary stem cells, mixed luminal/ basal progenitors, as well as luminal and basal cells.These (sub)populations were found to differ in proportion and/or characteristics at thesubsequent major physiological stages (lactation and dry periods). Basal cells decrease at lactation and dry off. They harbor a specific molecular signature at each stage. The luminal population, composed of several subpopulations, is the most variable. The hormonal receptivity of these cells changes at each physiological stage. Interestingly, some epithelial populations only appear at specific stages (puberty or lactation) and disappear at others, as one subpopulation of proliferative cells that we defined as progenitor cells. At last, the pool of rare putative stem cells gradually decreases from puberty to the next stages while maintaining a similar molecular signature. These are novel insights that show that the epithelial lineage evolves substantially through the
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Laurence Finot. Identification et caractérisation du lignage épithélial dans la glande mammaire bovine. Médecine vétérinaire et santé animal. Agrocampus Ouest, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019NSARB319⟩. ⟨tel-02172196v2⟩

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