Écologie spatiale des tortues marines dans le Sud-ouest de l’océan Indien : apport de la géomatique et de la modélisation pour la conservation

Abstract : Animal movement is crucial to the ecology of spatially structured population, particularly for highly mobile species. Marine turtles’ life cycle is indeed closely related to spatial and environmental factors. This work analyses the spatial ecology of marine turtles, from early juvenile to adult stages, in the Southwest Indian Ocean, primarily through the use of two methods: satellite tracking and individual-based modeling. Firstly, this analysis argues that green turtle’s reproductive phenology across the region is mainly related to the sea surface temperature in the vicinity of the nesting site. Then, it shows how drifting trajectories of hatchlings in oceanic currents unevenly influence their life history traits depending on the position of the natal site. By tracking late juvenile stage, this work also suggests a trans-equatorial developmental cycle for loggerhead turtle in the Indian Ocean. At adult stage, it describes migratory corridors and connectivity for green turtle across the region. Finally, an integrative approach considering all these results allows for an understanding of the regional migratory patterns and their influence on population dynamics. The results of this work provide a practical policy decision tool for management and conservation of marine turtles in the Southwest Indian Ocean and highlight the need for a large-scale approach in the protection of biological resources and heritage shared by multiple nations.
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Mayeul Dalleau. Écologie spatiale des tortues marines dans le Sud-ouest de l’océan Indien : apport de la géomatique et de la modélisation pour la conservation. Biologie animale. Université de la Réunion, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013LARE0037⟩. ⟨tel-02172111⟩

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