Progression de la racine primaire d'Arabidopsis thaliana en réponse à des variations de contraintes mécaniques de son substrat

Abstract : Root growth and development are highly modulated by soil mechanical properties such as texture, structure and bulk density. Increases in soil penetration resistance affect root system architecture, root cell production and elongation, root diameter, and root tip orientation. Although root responses to changes in mechanical stresses are well described in several plant species, their establishment and the signaling pathways underlying these responses remains misunderstood. The main objective of this thesis is to study the establishment of Arabidopsis thaliana primary root responses to changes in mechanical stresses. So far, studies reported two distinct putative mechanical signaling pathways involving either (i) the root cap as a main mechanosensing site or (ii) the activity of stretch-activated ion channels localized on the cell plasma membranes along the root apex. According to previous studies, we studied the implication of the root cap and of the stretch-activated channels of the MCA and MSL families in the root responses to increases in mechanical stresses. We developed an original experimental set-up based on the monitoring of growth and orientation of Arabidopsis thaliana primary roots in one-layer and two-layer Phytagel based growth media. The one-layer growth media mimicked a long-term increase in frictions and in radial and axial mechanical stresses whereas the two-layer growth media mimicked a short-term increase in axial mechanical stresses. We characterized penetration abilities, growth rate and tip orientation of Arabidopsis thaliana wild type roots (Col-0) and mutant roots showing defects in root cap organization (fez-2, smb-3, brn1-1 brn2-1) or in stretch-activated ion channels activity (mca1-null, mslΔ5) in one-layer and two-layer media. Firstly, we observed that the establishment of root growth responses to increases in mechanical stresses involved both mechanical (buckling) and biological (growth zone modulations) mechanisms. Then, our experiments demonstrated that alterations in root cap organization led to altered root growth responses to increases in mechanical stresses. Our results suggest that the root cap acts as a mechanosensing site. Moreover, the results obtained with the mca1-null and mslΔ5 Arabidopsis lines suggest that the MCA1 and MSLs ion channels also participate in the establishment of root responses to increases in mechanical stresses.
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Juliette Roué. Progression de la racine primaire d'Arabidopsis thaliana en réponse à des variations de contraintes mécaniques de son substrat. Biologie végétale. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018CLFAC082⟩. ⟨tel-02172070⟩

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