Influence de l’architecture génétique et des variations environnementales sur l’adaptation : la résistance aux insecticides chez les moustiques

Abstract : Mutations are the origin of the many "variants" present in natural populations. Adaptive variants are propagated by natural selection. However a mutation beneficial for a trait can negatively affect other traits (selective cost): a trade-off thus emerges between the benefits and the costs it induces. This PhD aimed at understanding how environmental changes could affect the evolutionary trade-offs of various types of adaptive mutations (substitutions, heterogeneous duplications, amplifications). In mosquitoes, organophosphate (OPs) and carbamates (CXs) insecticides usage has selected three major adaptive responses: gene amplifications at the Ester locus (encoding detoxifying enzymes), a substitution at the ace-1 locus (encoding the target of the insecticides), and gene duplications pairing susceptible and resistance ace-1 copies. The first axis of my PhD aimed at understanding the role of these heterogeneous duplications (combining two different copies of the same gene) in adaptation. Characterizing their evolutionary trade-offs, we showed that they confer a phenotype similar to standard heterozygotes. However, the study of their worldwide distribution and laboratory analyzes showed that these duplications, advantageous at the heterozygous state, are mostly sublethal when homozygous. The second axis of this PhD was the study of the impact of selection pressure variations on the dynamics of adaptive alleles. An experimental evolution study showed that intermediate selective pressures could generate overdominance situations at the ace-1 locus, promoting the selection of heterogeneous duplications. Furthermore, analyzing Montpellier samples collected over a 27 years period allowed us establishing the quantitative relationship between selective pressure variations and fitness variations for the different Ester resistance alleles. Finally, by studying three different geographical areas (Mayotte and Martinique islands and Montpellier) we showed that the various adaptations were not responding similarly to a major environmental change resulting from the selection pressure withdrawal (OPs and CXs were banned in 2007): while the ace-1 locus resistance alleles tended to disappear, those of the Ester locus remained at a significant frequency in natural populations.
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Pascal Milesi. Influence de l’architecture génétique et des variations environnementales sur l’adaptation : la résistance aux insecticides chez les moustiques. Zoologie des invertébrés. Université Montpellier, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015MONTS255⟩. ⟨tel-02172035⟩

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