Impact de la réponse IgA dans une nouvelle stratégie de vaccination muqueuse contre Salmonella et dans la régulation de la réponse adaptative

Abstract : The enterobacteria Salmonella species are divided into several serovars such as Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Typhi and Paratyphi which are the major causative agents of either gastroenteritis or typhoid fever. They are responsible for more than 90 million cases and 400 000 deaths each year. The increase in multi-drug resistant strains requires the implementation of prophylactic mucosal vaccines. Besides, the intestinal environment is characterized by a balance between immune tolerance and inflammatory response tightly regulated by secretory immunoglobulins (Ig) A. Mucosal IgA are mainly dimeric, serum IgA monomeric and two IgA isotypes have been described in humans: IgA1 and IgA2. We firstly explored the functions of the different isotypes and isoforms of human IgA. We pointed out a pro-inflammatory role of IgA2 whereas IgA1 rather oriented the immunity towards an anti-inflammatory response. We have also highlighted both the regulation of IgA receptors expression by IgA and an IgA/CD8 cytotoxic T cells axis. We also designed a multivalent vaccine against Salmonella by coupling two antigens – SseB and OmpC – to secretory Ig. We pointed out solid specific humoral and cellular responses against both these antigens coupled to either IgA or IgM after intra-nasal immunization in mucosal but also systemic compartments. We have also demonstrated the possibility to preserve and increase the antigen immunogenicity with a multivalent vaccine. This thesis thus paves the way for new secretory Ig-vectorized mucosal vaccines. In addition, the immune response could be modulated through the chosen isotype or isoform and the differences in immune activation generated by structural changes in IgA could shed some light on their role in mucosal homeostasis.
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Rémi Gayet. Impact de la réponse IgA dans une nouvelle stratégie de vaccination muqueuse contre Salmonella et dans la régulation de la réponse adaptative. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Lyon, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LYSES015⟩. ⟨tel-02172032⟩

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