Development of a 3D time reversal cavity for pulsed cavitational ultrasound : application to non-invasive cardiac therapy.

Abstract : The objective of this thesis was to explore new applications for cardiac histotripsy, and to develop the tools making it possible non-invasively. Cardiac ultrasound therapy indeed still remains limited due to the tremendous challenge of treating a constantly and rapidly moving organ, well protected behind the ribcage.We first showed in vivo, on a large animal model, that histotripsy could be used non-invasively to cut mitral chordae, and to treat calcified aortic stenosis in a beating heart. Cavitation on the valve leaflets can indeed locally and remotely act on the calcifications, and globally soften the valve. Simultaneously, we developed a therapeutic device allowing completely non-invasive cardiac shock-wave therapy based on the time reversal cavity concept. In particular, this device allows the emission of high intensity ultrasound pulses, and provides 3D electronical steering of the therapy focal spot in a large volume. After a thorough optimisation process, this device was capable of creating well controlled mechanical lesions over a 2 000 cm3 region of interest. To tackle the challenge of ultrasound propagation through the rib cage, we developed an adaptive focusing method (DORT method through a time reversal cavity), and implemented it in a 2D prototype of the device. With this method, we not only could build an adaptive ultrasonic wavefront propagating preferentially through the intercostal spaces, but due to time reversal cavities properties, we could also increase the peak pressure obtained on target.Finally, we pushed our work on adaptive focusing further, and considered the case of transcranial imaging. For this application, we chose to use the time reversal of speckle noise technique, to correct the aberrations induced by the skull. In numerical simulations, we were able to derive the phase and amplitude modulations induced by the bones, and could improve the contrast and resolution of a B-mode image.
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Justine Robin. Development of a 3D time reversal cavity for pulsed cavitational ultrasound : application to non-invasive cardiac therapy.. Acoustics [physics.class-ph]. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017USPCC273⟩. ⟨tel-02171417⟩

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