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. Matsuzawa, The Ai Project: Historical and Ecological Contexts, p.203

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. Matsuzawa, Comparative Cognition

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. Nakamura, Ai, the Intellectual Chimp

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. Matsuzawa, Comparative Cognition

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T. Nishida, Alloparental Behavior in Wild Chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains, Folia Primatologica, vol.41, pp.1-33, 1983.

. Bard, Primate Parenting

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. Matsuzawa, Jokro: The Death of an Infant Chimpanzee

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. Biro, Chimpanzee Mothers Carry the Mummified Remains of Their Dead Infants: Three Case Reports from Bossou, p.250

. Matsumoto, An Observation of a Severely Disabled Infant Chimpanzee in the Wild and Her Interactions with Her Mother

. Matsumoto, An Observation of a Severely Disabled Infant Chimpanzee in the Wild and Her Interactions with Her Mother

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. Bard, Primate Parenting

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. Matsuzawa, Comparative Cognition

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. Matsuzawa, The Ai Project: Historical and Ecological Contexts, p.207

. Matsuzawa, Essay on Evolutionary Neighbors. A Quiet Baby

M. Tomonaga, Reich?ken Sh?i Monogatari: Chinpanj? Kuroe No Uizan to Kosodate [Primate Institute Gleanings: Chimpanzee Chloe's First Childbirth and Childrearing

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, Cognitive Development in Chimpanzees, 2006.

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. Kupri, The Members Living in the P.R.I

T. Matsuzawa, Essay on Evolutionary Neighbors. Chloe and Cleo's First Year, 2001.

T. Matsuzawa, Essay on Evolutionary Neighbors. Ai Gives Birth, 2001.

. Ibid,

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. Matsuzawa, Evolutionary Origins of the Human Mother-Infant Relationship

. Kupri, Puchi Hajimete No Kosodate: Piko O Puchi Ni Modosu Made [Puchi's First Child Rearing: Until Returning Piko to Puchi

, Ayumu No O-Yome-San K?ho Kureo No Oitachi Wa to Wa? [How Was the Upbringing of Cleo, Chubu Nippon Broadcasting. TV program, 11m26. Aired, 2013.

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. Matsuzawa, Essay on Evolutionary Neighbors. Ai Gives Birth

M. Nakamura and ;. Mico, The Baby and Ai, Documentary, 52m. NHK, ANC Productions, 2001.

;. Tomonaga and . Nishida, Reich?ken Sh?i Monogatari: Chinpanj? Kuroe No Uizan to Kosodate [Primate Institute Gleanings: Chimpanzee Chloe's First Childbirth and Childrearing

. Bard, Primate Parenting

, Ayumu No O-Yome-San K?ho Kureo No Oitachi Wa to Wa? [How Was the Upbringing of Cleo, Ayumu's Bride Candidate?

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, Ayumu No O-Yome-San K?ho Kureo No Oitachi Wa to Wa? [How Was the Upbringing of Cleo, Ayumu's Bride Candidate?

. Tomonaga, Reich?ken Sh?i Monogatari: Chinpanj? Kuroe No Uizan to Kosodate [Primate Institute Gleanings: Chimpanzee Chloe's First Childbirth and Childrearing

. Matsuzawa, Essay on Evolutionary Neighbors. Chloe and Cleo's First Year

. Tomonaga, Reich?ken Sh?i Monogatari: Chinpanj? Kuroe No Uizan to Kosodate [Primate Institute Gleanings: Chimpanzee Chloe's First Childbirth and Childrearing

. Matsuzawa, Essay on Evolutionary Neighbors. A Quiet Baby

. Bard, Primate Parenting

. Matsuzawa, Essay on Evolutionary Neighbors. A Quiet Baby

. Matsuzawa, Evolutionary Origins of the Human Mother-Infant Relationship

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. Bard, 77 Premack and Premack, The Mind of an Ape

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. Bard, Primate Parenting

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T. Matsuzawa, The Emergence of Culture in Wild Chimpanzees: Education by MasterApprenticeship, Primate Origins of Human Cognition and Behavior, p.557, 2008.

C. Sousa and T. Matsuzawa, The Use of Tokens as Rewards and Tools by Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes, vol.4, pp.213-234, 2001.

. Matsuzawa, Comparative Cognition

. Kupri, By Akiho Hirata, Chimpanzee Ai Gallery. Album of March, vol.16, 2002.

E. Nogami, Joya Watches Jire Cracking Nuts, The Chimpanzees of Bossou and Nimba, 2011.

M. Nakamura and T. Aso, Ayumu and Ai, Documentary, 52m38s. NHK, ANC Productions, 2003.

M. Sousa, The Use of Tokens as Rewards and Tools by Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes)

S. Hirata, Chimpanzee Learning and Transmission of Tool Use to Fish for Honey, Cognitive Development in Chimpanzees, pp.201-214, 2006.

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A. Nakamura, Ayumu and Ai, vol.94

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. Matsuzawa, Evolutionary Origins of the Human Mother-Infant Relationship

. Tomonaga, Development of Chimpanzee Social Cognition in the First 2 Years of Life

. Matsuzawa, The Ai Project: Historical and Ecological Contexts, p.208

. Nakamura, The Baby and Ai

. Nakamura, Ai, the Intellectual Chimp

;. Nakamura and A. Ayumu, 105 Nakamura and Aso

, Practices Structuring Chimpanzee Care and Research

. Matsuzawa, , 2014.

, Regarding broader Japanese society, the topic of the functional simulation of nature through artifice is unveiled by Augustin Berque, Le Sauvage et L'artifice. Les Japonais Devant La Nature, 1986.

T. Matsuzawa, Comparative Cognition, 2015.

. Matsuzawa, , 2015.

. Matsuzawa, , 2014.

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. Matsuzawa, , 2015.

M. Hayashi, Chimpanzee care, accidents, and risk assessment, 34. Courtesy of Hayashi Misato, 2012.

F. Burrhus and . Skinner, Science and Human Behavior, 1953.

. Matsuzawa, , 2015.

. Ibid,

N. Morimura, G. &. Idani, and T. Matsuzawa, The First Chimpanzee Sanctuary in Japan: An Attempt to Care for The 'surplus' of Biomedical Research, American Journal of Primatology, vol.73, issue.3, pp.226-258, 2011.

S. V. Wrc, &. Kumamoto-sanctuary, and . Website, , 2017.

S. Hirata, Chimpanzee Down Syndrome: A Case Study of Trisomy 22 in a Captive Chimpanzee, Primates, vol.58, issue.2, pp.267-73, 2017.

, I thank Professor Hirata Satoshi for confirming this information. Email, 2017.

, Wakuwaku Tokimeki Saiensu Shir?zu 3 [The Future of Japanese Monkey Studies. The Potential for Human Studies, Wakuwaku Tokimeki Science Series, vol.3, p.192, 2012.

, See how former GARI researcher, current professor at Kumamoto Sanctuary describes how the close relationship with chimpanzees at GARI led to scientific findings, Nature News, 2011.

, Mutual Coordination of Behaviors in Human-chimpanzee Interactions: A Case Study in a Laboratory Setting, 2013.

, Recorded with permission, Matsuzawa

S. V. , Great Ape Information Network. Website, GAIN Registration Number, p.323, 2017.

S. V. Noel-rowe, The Pictorial Guide to the Living Primates, 1996.

, Michael Serres, interview, 2015.

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, Hayashi Misato, email, 2017.

L. Alcayna and -. Stevens, In the Shadow of Man: An Exploration of Pan-Human Perspectives in a Catalonian Chimpanzee Sanctuary, The Cambridge Journal of Anthropology, vol.28, issue.1, pp.1-33, 2008.

C. I-thank, Krupenye for his answers on Max-Planck's practices. Email, 2017.

K. I-thank, Slocombe for her answers on Max-Planck's practices. Email, 2017.

C. Krupenye, , 2017.

. Ibid,

, Katie Slocombe, email, 2017.

K. I-thank, Slocombe for her answers on Edinburgh Zoo's practices. Email, 2017.

. Ibid,

, The answers refer to the practices at Yerkes in 2013. I thank an anonymous interlocutor for the information. Email to author, 2017.

. Ibid,

, Anonymous interlocutor, email to author, 2017.

, Anonymous interlocutor, email to author, 2017.

. Ibid,

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, For a review, see Dominique Lestel, Paroles de Singes. L'Impossible Dialogue Homme-Primate, 1995.

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, Nim's life is beautifully retraced in a documentary. James Marsh, Documentary, 93m. BBC Films, Passion Pictures 70 and Red Box Films, 2011.

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, Hayashi Misato, email, 2017.

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, For instance, Matsuzawa authored a textbook accompanying NHK's documentary on PRI's chimpanzee community

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. Kupri, Ai and Her Friends. Website, 2017.

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, Addessi and colleagues employ DeLoache's definition to approach symbolic representation in capuchin monkeys

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. Ibid, , 1004.

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. Matsuzawa, Symbolic Representation of Number in Chimpanzees, p.97

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W. Cook, Do Young Chimpanzees Have Extraordinary Working Memory?" 35 Ibid, p.599

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. Inoue, ;. Matsuzawa, and W. Cook, Do Young Chimpanzees Have Extraordinary Working Memory

. Inoue, ;. Matsuzawa, and W. Cook, Do Young Chimpanzees Have Extraordinary Working Memory

M. Inoue, Working Memory of Numerals in Chimpanzees

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. Ibid,

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. Hayashi, A New Notation System of Object Manipulation in the Nesting-Cup Task for Chimpanzees and Humans, vol.49

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. Ibid,

. Ibid,

. Nishida, Chimpanzee Behavior in the Wild. An Audio-Visual Encyclopedia, p.136, 2010.

. Ibid, , vol.130

. Ibid, Shuwa (Japanese Sign Language)." (NTTWest, Zaidanh?jin zen'nihon r?a renmei (The Japanese Federation of the Deaf), vol.86, 2017.

. Ibid, Shuwabenky?kai (Association for the Study of Japanese Sign Language), vol.58, 2017.

S. "shuwa, Japanese Sign Language Shushushu, 2017.

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, Coproducing an experiment with chimpanzees

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, The English translation can be found under the name "Fear and Trembling, Amélie Nothomb, Stupeur et Tremblements, 2001.

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, For a comprehensive list with homophones and homonyms, see Steve Trussel, 2017.

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, Takeshi Atsumi reported using tou for his test subjects, 2015.

. See, Jigokudani Yaen K?en, 2017.

, Tetsuro Matsuzawa believes tou was his counter of prior use, although not completely sure, 2015.

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. Punipuni and . Website, The "conjugation" of the most used counters are easily accessed here, 2017.

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. Ibid,

S. Minamide, J. Nakamura, and . Waei-jiten,

C. Matsuzawa and . Wa-chinpanjin,

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, McGinn makes use of the alien example, but to evoke when humans are imagined as an oppressed species

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. Descola, Par-Delà Nature et Culture

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, For an English translation, see Eduardo Viveiros De Castro, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, vol.4, pp.469-88, 1998.

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, Ikuma Adachi, email, 2017.

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, Nonhuman Rights Project. Website, 2017.

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, For similar criteria in classifier research, see Maximilian Frankowsky and Dan Ke, Language and Cognitive Science, vol.2, issue.1, pp.55-67, 2015.

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. Trussel, Japanese Numeral Counters

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. Ibid, , vol.63

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. Ibid,

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. Ibid,

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. De-waal, The Ape and the Sushi Master. Cultural Reflections by a Primatologist, p.77

, Animal Perspective and its Becomings

. De-waal, The Ape and the Sushi Master. Cultural Reflections by a Primatologist, vol.77

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. Ibid, 442 Italics as original

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. Ibid,

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T. Visalberghi, Primate Causal Understanding in the Physical and Psychological Domains

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. Ibid, , p.139

. Ibid,

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C. Krupenye, Great Apes Anticipate That Other Individuals Will Act according to False Beliefs, Science, vol.354, issue.6308, p.110, 2016.

. Ibid, , vol.113

. Ibid,

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E. Viveiros-de-castro and ;. Relativo, , vol.8, pp.113-161, 2002.

, teoria da mente" was translated as "theory of the mind" and not "theory of mind", as my usage. Both are acceptable, but only the second conveys the same meaning as in cognitive sciences. Eduardo Viveiros De Castro, The Relative Native. Translated by Julia Sauma and Martin Holbraad, vol.3, pp.469-502, 2013.

. Castro, Os Pronomes Cosmológicos E O Perspectivismo Ameríndio

. Castro, Perspectival Anthropology and the Method of Controlled Equivocation

. Castro, Os Pronomes Cosmológicos E O Perspectivismo Ameríndio

U. Jakob-von, , 1921.

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. Descola, Par-Delà Nature et Culture

. Ibid,

A. Kupferberg, S. Glasauer, and J. M. Burkart, Do Robots Have Goals? How Agent Cues Influence Action Understanding in Non-Human Primates, Behavioural Brain Research, vol.246, pp.47-54, 2013.

. Kohn, How Forests Think

. Ibid, , p.142

. Ibid, , vol.132

. Descola, Par-Delà Nature et Culture

. Ibid,

. Descola, Beyond Nature and Culture, p.138

. Castro, Os Pronomes Cosmológicos E O Perspectivismo Ameríndio

. Latour, We Have Never Been Modern

. Ibid, , vol.10

. Latour, We Have Never Been Modern

. Ibid,

. Ibid,

S. Houdart, La Cours Des Miracles. Ethnologie D'un Laboratoire Japonais, 2007.

. Ibid,

B. Jensen, Techno-Animism in Japan: Shinto Cosmograms, Actor-Network Theory, and the Enabling Powers of Non-Human Agencies

K. Manabe and H. Befu, Japanese Cultural Identity. An Empirical Investigation of Nihonjinron, Contemporary Japan, vol.4, issue.1, p.94, 1993.

, For a discussion, see de Waal, The Ape and the Sushi Master. Cultural Reflections by a Primatologist

B. Jensen, 49 This position seems to be at the heart of the analyses of the four ontologies in Descola, Techno-Animism in Japan: Shinto Cosmograms

L. Houdart, Cours Des Miracles. Ethnologie D'un Laboratoire Japonais

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. Kohn, How Forests Think

. Castro, Os Pronomes Cosmológicos E O Perspectivismo Ameríndio

D. Lestel and L. Singulier, , 2004.

. Ibid,

T. Nishida, Chimpanzee Behavior in the Wild. An Audio-Visual Encyclopedia, p.86, 2010.

. Ibid, , p.205

, Catherine Hobaiter, personal communication, email to author, 2017.

. Ibid, , vol.81

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, I thank Sayuri Takeshita for providing the name of the principal investigator of such morphological studies

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. De-waal, The Ape and the Sushi Master. Cultural Reflections by a Primatologist, p.71

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. Ibid,

. Matsuzawa, Euthanasia Is Not an Option: 10 Years' Care of a Chimpanzee with Acute Tetraparesis, p.291

. Ibid, , pp.291-92

. Miyabe-nishiwaki, Tetraparesis Resembling Acute Transverse Myelitis in a Captive Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes): Long-Term Care and Recovery

. Matsuzawa, Euthanasia Is Not an Option: 10 Years' Care of a Chimpanzee with Acute Tetraparesis

. Miyabe-nishiwaki, Tetraparesis Resembling Acute Transverse Myelitis in a Captive Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes): Long-Term Care and Recovery

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. Hayashi, Behavioral Recovery from Tetraparesis in a Captive Chimpanzee

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. Matsuzawa, Euthanasia Is Not an Option: 10 Years' Care of a Chimpanzee with Acute Tetraparesis, p.292

T. Sakuraba and H. , A New Method of Walking Rehabilitation Using Cognitive Tasks in an Adult Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes) with a Disability: A Case Study, vol.22

. Matsuzawa, Euthanasia Is Not an Option: 10 Years' Care of a Chimpanzee with Acute Tetraparesis

. Miyabe-nishiwaki, Tetraparesis Resembling Acute Transverse Myelitis in a Captive Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes): Long-Term Care and Recovery

. Matsuzawa, Euthanasia Is Not an Option: 10 Years' Care of a Chimpanzee with Acute Tetraparesis, p.291

. Kupri, The Members Living in the PRI, 2017.

. Ibid,

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P. Courtesy-of, . Hayashi, and . Kupri, Puchi Chiry? Kiroku. Puchi's Medical Treatment Record. (Internal Document), 2017.

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H. Zhang, (c'est-à-dire de posture et de mouvements), celles en termes de conséquences (c'est-à-dire présentant les résultats de l'action en fonction de catégories) et celles en termes de relations spatiales (où il s'agit de savoir vers quoi ou vers qui l'action est orientée). À chaque fois que la signification d'un comportement s'avérait difficile à saisir, nous avons privilégié une approche par la structure ou la spatialité. Nous avons cependant accompagné notre manuscrit des vidéos correspondantes afin de laisser la, Journal of East Asian Linguistics, vol.16, pp.43-59, 2007.

, Cette recherche comporte en effet un certain nombre d'analyses quantitatives, en plus des descriptions ethnographiques, dont les protocoles et les méthodes de collecte de données seront explicités en détail chaque fois qu'il y sera fait référence, De plus, nous avons utilisé ©SPSS 24 dans le cas des études pour lesquelles un traitement statistique des données pouvait être mis en oeuvre

U. Enfin, En conclusion, nous devons avertir le lecteur que ce manuscrit visant à être compris, nous avons cherché autant que possible à éviter l'usage d'une écriture assimilable à un jargon disciplinaire et nous avons privilégié en tout point la clarté du propos. La raison en est qu'il s'adresse à des lecteurs provenant de diverses disciplines, et ne partageant donc pas la même culture universitaire. Il se peut donc qu'aux yeux de certains spécialistes, certains passages puissent paraître simplistes, répétitifs ou trop expliqués, tandis que d'autre leur apparaîtront plus difficile à saisir. Nous avons tenté de faire le lien entre différents styles d'écriture académique, du champ littéraire au champ scientifique, afin d'atteindre à un objectif pédagogique et permettre à des praticiens de différentes disciplines de s'emparer de cette recherche. De plus, cette thèse a privilégié autant que possible la nouveauté du matériel ethnographique en lieu et place de longues élaborations théoriques. En d'autres termes, nous avons usé de l'analyse théorique avec allocations temporelles des activités des animaux et enfin de quasi-expériences d'interaction entre humains et chimpanzés dans le but de renforcer les observations réaliser. À l'avenir, un projet similaire pourrait être élaboré dans un environnement naturel, qui renvoie à l'expérience singulière de se trouver dans la position d'expérimentateur, là où l'anthropologue conduit lui-même l'étude des relations entre chimpanzés et humains

, cette tentative ne sera pas menée individuellement mais comme une entreprise collective fondée sur l'appréhension de visées communes, dans laquelle les ambitions individuelles ne sont qu'un catalyseur. En pratique, les relations sociales entre Pan et Homo sont un objet privilégié pour comprendre l'altérité radicale, les natures-cultures et les trajectoires de l'Évolution. Néanmoins, un tel objet ne pourra sans doute être complètement saisi qu'à travers une vision qui aille au-delà de l'objet en soi