Etude des décharges partielles dans une chambre à fission haute température

Abstract : The Commission for Atomic and Alternative Energy (CEA) is in charge of the fourth generation fast neutron reactor design. The instrumentation for neutron flux measurement of this future reactor will be based on fission chambers placed in-core. These high temperature fission chambers (HTFC) will have to operate at full reactor power, and thus at a temperature between 400°C and 650°C.A recent review of HTFC technology has revealed that some points need improvement to ensure greater reliability.In particular, a better understanding of the phenomenon of partial discharges (PD), which are observed in the fission chambers at high temperature, is needed. These PD pulses are indistinguishable from those produced by the products of fission caused by collision with neutrons with the fissile deposit within thechambers.In addition, they could accelerate aging of the ceramic insulators used in the chambers.Based on both experimental and theoretical approaches, this PhD work found several results.Tests on different fission chambers made it possible to characterize the DP signals vis-a-vis the neutron signals and to find an operational DP-neutron discrimination method. The DP signals were localized and a technological solution was proposed and successfully implemented to eliminate them.A calculation tool for neutron pulse simulation was also designed and tested successfully.An experiment on the effect of temperature on the Paschen curve, in a closed gas volume, was designed and carried out giving initial interesting results.
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Giacomo Galli. Etude des décharges partielles dans une chambre à fission haute température. Génie civil nucléaire. Université Paris-Saclay, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLC109⟩. ⟨tel-02170517⟩

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