Modulation pharmacologique de la fuite calcique du réticulum sarcoplasmique au sein de cardiomyocytes soumis à l'hypoxie/réoxygénation

Abstract : BACKGROUND: During myocardial infarction, alteration of calcium homeostasis between sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), mitochondria and cytosol occurs in cardiomyocytes (CM) and leads to cell death. Calcium leak channels are thought to be key regulators of the reticular calcium homeostasis. Translocon (TLC), a major component of the translation machinery, is a major reticular calcium leak channel.METHODS: By the mean of photonics, we first assessed the spatial organization and the function of TLC in the SR of adult mouse CM. In a second time, we questioned if and how the pharmacological TLC modulation could reduce ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-mediated heart injury in a model of mouse myocardial infarction.RESULTS: Our data show that TLC is specifically located in the longitudinal SR in adult mouse CM. We demonstrate that puromycin induces a partial reduction of calcium stores in the longitudinal SR, while we observe no alteration in the ryanodine receptor-dependent calcium stores in the junctional SR. Puromycin preconditioning of mouse subjected to myocardial infarction significantly decreases the infarct area by near 30.9±6.3%. This is correlated with a decrease in the activation of mitochondrial pro-apoptotic proteins and an increase of a pro-survival mechanism: autophagy. We further demonstrated that puromycin preconditioning decreases the rate of calcium increase in the cytosol of adult CM during the ischemia duration in correlation with the decreased activation of calcium-dependent calpains.CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we characterized TLC as a leak channel specifically located in the longitudinal SR compartment of adult mouse CM. We found that the pharmacological activation of TLC before myocardial infarction exerts a preconditioning effect on myocardium without altering the ryanodine-dependent calcium stores. Altogether, these findings emphasize the present knowledge on the duality between junctional and longitudinal SR in CM and open up new therapeutic perspectives
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Ribal Al-Mawla. Modulation pharmacologique de la fuite calcique du réticulum sarcoplasmique au sein de cardiomyocytes soumis à l'hypoxie/réoxygénation. Physiologie [q-bio.TO]. Université de Lyon, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LYSE1125⟩. ⟨tel-02170509⟩

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