Rhéologie de suspensions hétérogènes concentrées : applications aux bols alimentaires et aux jus gastriques d'aliments solides.

Abstract : The challenge of this work is to carry out the rheological characterization of concentrated suspensions of viscoplastic objects suspended in a viscoelastic matrix. Three structural constraints are faced: the heterogeneity of the particles, the size of particle in relation to the size of the whole system studied, and the proximity between the consistency of the suspending phase and that the consistency of the particles. In the food context, some biological constraints are added: small lifetimes of bolus, in vivo sampling and test conditions of temperature and humidity. All these constraints lead to a compromise in rheometry, at the edge of continuum mechanics, aiming to measure useful rheological properties. To carry out the rheological characterizations quickly and efficiently, two original devices has been designed trough this work. Applied to food bolus from cheese, rheology comes to govern flows in the mouth and induce the creation of exchange area in the mouth, during the chewing process. Through these interfaces, the savors and flavors are released and transported to the sensory receptors. The results show the relationship between the yield stress of the bolus and flavors release of different hydrophobic aromas, depending on the firmness and fat content of the cheeses. Specifically, fluid suspending matrix appears to play a major role in the creation and persistence of exchange area.Applied to gastric juice from bread, the issue is whether changes in carbohydrate content could impact the rheology of gastric juice, modify the kinetics of stomach flow rate, and decrease the glycemic excursion. The results show the effect of amylose addition on increasing the viscosity for long digestion time, when the rheology is no longer governed by the jamming effect of the particles made of water-swollen bread. However, amylose does not seem to have any impact on the kinetics of emptying, which reinforces that the stomach flow rate is regulated by the caloric charge contained in the meal.
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Jeremy Patarin. Rhéologie de suspensions hétérogènes concentrées : applications aux bols alimentaires et aux jus gastriques d'aliments solides.. Mécanique des fluides [physics.class-ph]. Université de Grenoble, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014GRENI103⟩. ⟨tel-02170505⟩

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