Diversité génétique et phénotypique de l’espèce Brettanomyces bruxellensis : influence sur son potentiel d’altération des vins rouges

Abstract : The yeast species Brettanomyces bruxellensis is the most dreaded wine spoilage microorganism because of its repercussions on wine organoleptic wine alteration. It is also present in numerous fermented beverages and its high genetic diversity is partly associated with its ecological origin. Microsatellite analysis of a large collection of isolates (1318) from various geographical origins shows the species’ high genetic diversity, namely among wine strains. Notably, it highlights the coexistence of diploid and triploid individuals worldwide as well as at the region, winery and wine level. Isolation of some of the genotypes in several wine regions in the world suggests this species’ dispersion as well as the putative adaptation of these individuals to the harsh wine environment.The relationship between genetic diversity, matrix type, and physiological traits was further explored. The type of consumable sugars in relation to growth and phenol volatile production capacities of the studied strains, are independent from the ploidy level or ecological origin of the latter. Nevertheless, growth and phenol volatile production profiles (rates and yields) vary, highlighting differences in strains’ growth capacity in different media and aeration conditions. In particular, our data suggests an important adaptation of triploid strains to wine-type environment. From a practical point of view, influence of physicochemical parameters (such as sugars and temperature) on B. bruxellensis’ development in wine has been investigated. In red wine, residual sugar profiles don’t seem to be a relevant tool to estimate the risk associated with “Brett” spoilage. However, the important temperature variations occurring in wine cellars could be a possible explanation for contamination frequency during the first summer of barrel-ageing.
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Alice Cibrario. Diversité génétique et phénotypique de l’espèce Brettanomyces bruxellensis : influence sur son potentiel d’altération des vins rouges. Microbiologie et Parasitologie. Université de Bordeaux, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017BORD0923⟩. ⟨tel-02170503⟩

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