Oxydes sans plomb pour la détection de gaz : OSPÉGAZ

Abstract : Today gas detection, which now mainly uses optical sensors, electrochemical sensors based on lead, and catalytic sensors, is a very promising market (estimated at 3 billion euros) with a strong growth (10% per year). The need for new instrumentation systems dedicated to the monitoring of the air quality and to the detection of hazardous substances, requires the study and development of new sensors compatible with the European environmental standards : Restriction of the use of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) ; Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals (REACh). The OSPÉGAZ project aims to develop innovative integrated instrumentations systems for the characterization of different environmental exposures linked to the actions recommended by the PNSE2 for proven health impacts. Our research project aims to develop innovating and cost-effective gas sensors containing lead-free oxides and dedicated to the detection of flammable gases and protection against toxic risks. The works of the thesis presented in this manuscript is a part of this project. The objectives were, firstly, to develop a new process for ink preparation in UDSMM laboratory, for the elaboration, electrical and physicochemical characterizations, of thick porous film, and secondly to make gas sensors based on these films. We chose to use the BaTiO3 (well-known material in literature) material as a first material in order to develop the process of thick film elaboration. After that, we chose the BaSrTiFeO₃ as gas-sensitive material, and we studied two compositions of Ba₁₋ ₓ Sr ₓ Ti₁₋yFeyO₃ with two different concentrations or iron : Ba₀.₈₅Sr₀.₁₅Ti₀.₉Fe₀.₁O₃ (BSTF 10%) and Ba₀.₈₅Sr₀.₁₅Ti₀.₉₈Fe₀.₀₂O₃ (BSTF 2%). Electrical characterizations were made in a wide range of frequency (100 HZ to 1 MHz) and temperature (25° C to 500° C). The dielectric properties as a function of temperature and frequency were studied using two different structures of capacitance : metal-insulator-metal (MIM) and interdigital electrodes (CID). Finally we have developed semi-conductor gas sensors based on BT, BST and BSTF (10% ; 2%) thick films. All our sensors were tested under different gases such as carbon monoxide CO (200ppm), hydrogen sulphide H₂S (50ppm) and sulfur dioxide SO₂ (20ppm), at various temperature, in the laboratory of SIMTRONICS SAS. We have measured the greatest relative sensitivity under H₂S (50ppm) gas ; 55.4% and 48% respectively for BSTF (10%) and BSTF (2%), at 450°C. Good relative sensitivity and very interesting dynamic responsesof BSTF show that the material has a great potential for the detection of gas. The optimization of the sensor geometry, iron rate and operating temperature should allow us to improve the performance of our demonstrators.
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Mohamad Ali El Romh. Oxydes sans plomb pour la détection de gaz : OSPÉGAZ. Electronique. Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016DUNK0448⟩. ⟨tel-02170499⟩

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