Mécanismes moléculaires régulés par la méthyltransférase EZH2 dans les corticosurrénalomes

Abstract : Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) are regarded as rare endocrinemalignancies associated with dismal prognosis. The three common molecularmechanisms predominantly altered in ACC include inactivating mutations of theTP53 tumor suppressor gene, overexpression of IGF-II and constitutive activationof the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Using transgenic mouse models, wehave shown that these alterations, even when combined together, were notsufficient to induce malignant progression.We previously identified the histone methyltransferase EZH2 as the mostderegulated histone modifier in ACC. We have also shown that its overexpressionis associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis. Yet, the mechanismsunderlying this aggressiveness are largely unknown. Here, we aimed to identifyEZH2 target genes in ACC, which are either activated or repressed.Thus, we conducted a bio-informatics analysis of transcriptome data fromthree cohorts of ACC patients. The analysis showed a strong correlation betweenhighly expressed EZH2 and positively regulated genes suggesting a major role of‘transcriptional inducer‘ for EZH2 in ACC. We have shown that this positiveactivity relies on an interaction between EZH2 and E2F1 that results in theupregulation of genes implicated in cell cycle regulation and mitosis such asRRM2, PTTG1 and PRC1/ASE1. We showed that Inhibition of RRM2 by RNAinterference or pharmacological treatment with GW8510 inhibits cellular growth,wound healing, clonogenic growth, migration and induces apoptosis of H295Rcells in culture.In contrast, expression of the pro-apoptotic factor NOV/CCN3 is decreasedin ACC, which is correlated with development of aggressive tumours. Ourmolecular analyses show that EZH2 inhibition increases expression ofNOV/CCN3, suggesting that EZH2 overexpression may also favour malignantprogression in ACC by inhibition of apoptosis stimulators. NOV has previouslybeen identified as a negative target of the nuclear receptor SF1 in ACC cells,although the molecular mechanisms underlying this inhibition were unidentified.Interestingly, in prostate cancer, NOV expression is inhibited by the androgenreceptor, through recruitment of EZH2 and deposition of the H3K27me3 mark.We have been able to identify a similar cooperation between SF1 and EZH2 tosuppress NOV expression and block apoptosis in ACC.Altogether, these findings identifiy SF1 and E2F1 as two independentpartners of EZH2, inducing repression of proapoptotic factors, and activation ofcell cycle genes respectively, thus leading to aggressiveness of ACC.
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Houda Tabbal. Mécanismes moléculaires régulés par la méthyltransférase EZH2 dans les corticosurrénalomes. Physiologie [q-bio.TO]. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018CLFAC081⟩. ⟨tel-02170160⟩

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