Mécanotransduction au complexe E-cadhérine/β-caténine lors de la transition épithelio-mésenchymateuse

Abstract : In multicellular organisms, cells generate and experience mechanical forces that propagate between and within cells. These forces may shape cells, tissues and organs, and also convert into biochemical signals. In a simple epithelium, cells form tissue sheets by directly adhering to one another through adhesion complexes, such as the Adherens Junctions. Adherens Junctions comprise transmembrane proteins E-cadherins, which are under actomyosin-generated tension via a link that contains β-catenin. β-catenin is also a major transcription cofactor that regulates gene activity associated with Epithelial-to-Mesenchyme Transition when translocated in the nucleus. β-catenin nuclear localization and transcriptional activity are mechanically inducible in a variety of healthy and disease models and were proposed to follow phosphorylation-induced -catenin release from E-cadherin. However, direct evidence for this translocation and these mechanisms are lacking, and whether E-cadherin tension is involved is unknown.In this thesis, we assess the relationship between E-cadherin tension and β-catenin nuclear localization and activity, determine the relevance of β-catenin shuttling between membrane and nucleus, and characterize the underlying molecular mechanisms in cells migrating in an at least partial EMT-like fashion upon hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) or wound stimulation. We showed that β-catenin nuclear activity follows a substantial release from the membrane that is specific to migrating cells. This translocation occurs downstream of the Src-FAK pathway, which targets E-cadherin tension relaxation. The underlying mechanisms sufficiently involve actomyosin remodeling, characterized by an enrichment of ventral stress fibers that capture phosphomyosin at the expense of the cortex at Adherens Junctions. In contrast, phosphorylations of the cadherin/catenin complex are not substantially required. These data demonstrate that E-cadherin acts as a sensor of intracellular mechanics in a crosstalk with cell-substrate adhesions that targets β-catenin signaling
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Charlène Gayrard. Mécanotransduction au complexe E-cadhérine/β-caténine lors de la transition épithelio-mésenchymateuse. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017USPCC269⟩. ⟨tel-02169918⟩

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