Analyse piézométrique et modélisation des signaux hydrologiques et gravimétriques dans les aquifères du socle en région soudano-sahélienne : cas de Ouagadougou

Abstract : During the 70s the water level in basement aquifers of the city of Ouagadougou underwent large level fluctuations. In this PhD thesis 1) we set up a local piezometric network around the so called CIEH piezometer in the University of Ouagadougou, 2) observe the fluctuations of the water level in this piezometric network during one hydrologic year, 3) model, using a 1D simplified box model the water level in the piezometric network, 4) assess the capability of gravimetric measurement to measure water level fluctuations during a 7 days aquifer test, 5) measure the variability of major chemical species in our piezometric network between the end of the dry season and the end of the rain season.The 1D box model is derived from the GARDENIA model of BRGM. It involves three compartments, the first ones describes the first few centimeters of soil, from which evapotranpiration is supposed to take place; the second one buffers the input of water to the third one which the aquifer. Modeling the whole piezometric network during one hydrological year allows to compute a rainfall budget. The results correspond the land occupation of each well, old suburb; natural area, and recently urbanized area. An attempt to model the whole piezometric record, lasting since 1978 at CIEH was unsuccessful and this is interpreted as an effect of land use change, combined to the need of different coefficients for a dry year and a very wet year. As the hydrological parameters are drifting as function of climate and of land use changes near the CIEH well, the usual method using the first years of the record for calibration of the model and the following years for its assessment cannot therefore be applied.The theoretical 7 days aquifer test experiment was modeled using MODFOW/PMWIN and a variable spacing grid with a mesh size of 0.2 m near the pumped borehole increasing progressively to nearly 2 km at the border of the modeling box. This model is calibrated along analytic and numerical solutions published in the literature and is combined with a gravimetric model operating on the same grid. The gravity results were once again validated against published literature. Three cases of aquifer test were considered : 1) pumping in the laterite layer, 2) pumping in the horizontally fissure medium below the laterites, 3) pumping in a fracture where the fissured medium is deepening. The hydraulic properties of laterite were supposed to be known, while the hydraulic conductivity of the fissured medium was unknown. For the case of the fracture, it is shown that with present days accuracy gravity data are not able alone to constrain the unknown conductivity of the fissured layer. However leveling data on the subsidence of laterites during pumping when combined with gravity data allow recovering this parameter with a reasonable accuracy.Our chemical analyses were of poor quality. However focusing on sulfides and nitrates, which should not be strongly affected with errors confirm 1) that there are still inside Ouagadougou groundwater of potable quality (to be confirmed with more extensive analyses), 2)high sulfide and nitrate levels can be reached during the rain season (this is probably linked the water level rising near the surface).It is suggested in conclusion that valuable results could be obtained in Ouagadougou by long term monitoring of a few piezometers both for water level and for water quality.
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Ali Houmadi Mouhouyouddine. Analyse piézométrique et modélisation des signaux hydrologiques et gravimétriques dans les aquifères du socle en région soudano-sahélienne : cas de Ouagadougou. Hydrologie. Université Montpellier, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015MONTS254⟩. ⟨tel-02169684⟩

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