Etude système de structures sub-lambda pour l'imagerie infrarouge

Abstract : In the field of infrared imaging, there are two main types of detectors : cooled detectors, with great sensitivity but expensive, and uncooled detectors, exhibiting precise temperature measurement at moderate cost. In both technologies, the optical systems associated with the detectors represent an important part of the overall cost because of the unitary fabrication process of infrared lenses and the need of more resolved imaging system to follow the shrinkage of the pixel and the increasing array format. Thus, it is important to search for cost effective and low footprint optical solutions exhibiting a high level of performance for infrared imaging systems. In this thesis work we study how dielectric subwavelength structures, or metasurfaces, can adress these issues in infrared systems. Such devices can be made using microelectronics based collective fabrication process, which are cost effective compared to molded infrared optics. Subwavelength optics can be made with silicon, which is transparent in long wave infrared (LWIR) imaging and exhibiting a high refractive index. By designing the geometry of resonators with subwavelength dimensions, one can control light properties like its polarization, phase, transmission and dispersion. However as it is challenging to control all those parameters, even more with fabrication process limitations, we first propose to mix refractive lenses with subwavelength phase blades which correct wavefront errors. (i) We first developed a time effective simulation method mixing electromagnetic calculations with RCWA, for the subwavelength part of the optical system, and classical optical design for the refractive optics. It is worth noting that our subwavelength optics have millimetric to centimetric dimensions to be coupled with refractive lenses, and our method allows us to simulate the overall system. (ii) Then we developed the fabrication process for prototyping subwavelength optics, mainly for spherical aberration correction in LWIR imaging systems. (iii) Finally, we conducted optical characterisations of our systems to validate our model. Our subwavelength optics show an important improvement of the MTF (more than 3 times better at 25 cycles per millimeter) of an optical infrared system by correcting its spherical aberration. Our last results show a improvement of the image quality on a large bandwith (8-12µm) paving the way to large bandwidth subwavelength optics in infrared imaging systems.
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Quentin Abadie. Etude système de structures sub-lambda pour l'imagerie infrarouge. Optique [physics.optics]. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018GREAY071⟩. ⟨tel-02169211⟩

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