Syndrome d’apnées obstructives du sommeil et métabolisme lipidique : étude animale et étude clinique préliminaire

Abstract : Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is a disease characterized by recurrent episodes of nocturnal intermittent hypoxia (IH). OSA is a major public health problem due to its frequency in general population (5 to 20%) and its numerous metabolic and cardiovascular complications. Repetitive apneas lead to IH which is responsible of early atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications. Gold standard treatment of OSA, that is to say continuous positive airway pressure, has poor effects on OSA cardiovascular consequences in some patients, underlining the need of alternative therapeutic strategies. Underlying mechanisms linking OSA to atherosclerosis are still poorly understood. Nevertheless, a link between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) metabolism changes and atheromatous process has already been report during OSA syndrome. Arachidonic acid (n-6 PUFA) metabolism leads to increased biosynthesis of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids during OSA. Moreover, n-3 PUFAs influence cardiovascular complications progression especially by modifying n-6 FA / n-3 FA balance. The aim of this work was first to evaluate the influence of n-3 PUFAs supplementation on a CIH induced atherosclerosis progression model, and to clinically evaluate erythrocyte n-6 PUFA / n-3 PUFA distribution in OSA patients. We have shown that n-3 PUFAs supplementation prevents atherosclerosis acceleration in CIH exposed mice and is associated with a modulation of inflammatory mediators. These promising results encourage us to consider an interventional clinical study in OSA patients. In a second time, we have studied FA mitochondrial β-oxidation metabolism via acylcarnitines (ACs) metabolites. These ACs are increasingly studied especially in cardiovascular diseases context. OSA impact on β-oxidation metabolism and its vascular function consequences have been evaluated. ACs study is promising and will perhaps allow biological markers emergence in relation to cardiovascular pattern.
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Laetitia van Noolen. Syndrome d’apnées obstructives du sommeil et métabolisme lipidique : étude animale et étude clinique préliminaire. Physiologie [q-bio.TO]. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018GREAV035⟩. ⟨tel-02169204⟩

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