Etude des mécanismes moléculaires régulant la voie Hippo via les intégrines ß1

Abstract : Cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix plays a key role in their proliferation,differentiation or apoptosis. Therefore, this process is critical for normal development andtissue homeostasis. The deregulation of this mechanism often contributes to pathologicalsituations. Thus, the deregulation of many genes involved in cell-cell or cell-extracellularmatrix adhesions are linked to pathologies leading to developmental defects, tumorprogression, or inflammation.Integrins are heterodimeric transmembrane receptors that play a major role in cellextracellularmatrix interactions. This role is not limited to a simple mechanical interactionsince integrins also allow the transduction of the signals from the extracellular matrix to thecell in order to permit the latter to adapt to its microenvironment. In order to study the roleof β1 integrins in bone development, the laboratory has implemented a mouse model withconditional inactivation of the Itgb1 gene based on the expression of recombinase Cre at thepre-osteoblastic stage. The mutated mice show a defect in bone development due to a lowproliferation rate of osteoblasts.Contrary to what was generally accepted, this reduced proliferation is independent of theclassical pathway involving the classical pathway of MAP kinases. On the other hand, it iscontrolled by Hippo: this signaling pathway has recently been identified in Drosophila andMammals as a major inhibitory mechanism of cell proliferation. The transcription cofactorYAP, the end effector of this pathway, is a nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttle. Its expression isamplified in various cancers including osteosarcoma where this overexpression associatedwith that of Itgb1 is a factor of poor prognosis.My work involves understanding how β1 integrins control the Hippo pathway, and thusproliferation. We confirmed that deletion of β1 integrins activates the phosphorylation ofYAP and its sequestration in the cytoplasm. Using Cell Biology and Biochemistry techniques,we showed that following the deletion of Itgb1, the cells exhibit a defect in vesicular trafficthat reduces the membrane translocation of Rac1. The cytoplasmic sequestration of Rac18decreases the activation of its major effector, the PAK kinase. PAK is responsible for thedissociation of an inactivating membrane complex composed of the adaptor protein NF2,the LATS kinase, and its main effector YAP. The integrins by provoking the loss of thiscomplex induce the dephosphorylation of YAP, its nuclear translocation, and thus stimulatecell proliferation.
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Hiba Sabra. Etude des mécanismes moléculaires régulant la voie Hippo via les intégrines ß1. Biologie du développement. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017GREAV026⟩. ⟨tel-02168961⟩

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