Effect of intermolecular interactions on the viscoelastic behavior of polyamides

Abstract : Polyamides are engineering thermoplastics which exhibit good mechanical and barrier properties. However, the viscoelastic behavior over the complete range of polyamide relaxation is a topic rarely mentioned in the literature due to the presence of a crystalline phase and lack of thermal stability.The rheological behavior of amorphous PA 6I with increasing molecular weight was studied. As molecular weight increases, a clear rubbery plateau appears and the longest relaxation time is shifted to lower frequencies, as expected by the Rouse and reptation models.Interactions were added to the PA by copolymerizing PA 6I’s monomers with different substituted isophthalic acids. Ionic copolyamides were synthesized in molar fractions from 5 to 20 mol%, inciting an increase of about 10 to 40°C in the glass transition temperature. Master curves of unentangled PA 6I and substituted polyamides, with similar molecular weight, overlap in the complete frequency range using an appropriate reference temperature, which is close to, but not identical to Tg. Ionic groups have an effect on the Angell’s dynamical fragility, i.e. on the temperature variation of the rheological response close to Tg. Dynamic moduli of unentangled polyamides were fitted with Rouse model, showing no effect of hydrogen bonds or ionic groups on the shape of the rheological master curves. The molecular weight between entanglements increases for ionic copolyamides due to an increase of chain rigidity. Small-angle X-ray scattering shows that no segregation of ionic domains occurs in unentangled ionic copolyamides, while entangled copolyamides show only weak segregation.Stronger hydrogen bonding resulted in a decrease of the molecular weight between entanglements. Nevertheless no significant difference was observed in the shape of master curves, which were fitted using the Rouse model.The effect of interacting groups on the local dynamics in the solid state (below Tg) was studied by dielectric spectroscopy. Ionic groups have no effect on secondary relaxations, while alpha-relaxation is shifted accordingly to Tg. No difference was observed between ionic copolyamides and PA 6I during aging experiments, as ionic groups do not act as dynamic heterogeneities, i.e., zones where the local dynamics are heterogeneous due to different local ionic fractions
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Ana Rita Oliveira de Figueiredo Martins. Effect of intermolecular interactions on the viscoelastic behavior of polyamides. Material chemistry. Université de Lyon, 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019LYSE1034⟩. ⟨tel-02168672⟩

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