Lutte contre les mouches tsé-tsé en Afrique de l’Ouest : optimisation de l’utilisation de la technique de l’insecte stérile

Abstract : In sub-Saharan Africa, nearly 10 million km² of land, the most fertile for animal and agricultural productions, are infested with tsetse flies limiting all development initiatives for sustainable agriculture. Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomes that cause human and animal african trypanosomosis, a debilitating disease of humans (sleeping sickness) and livestock (nagana). In 2000, the African Heads of State and Government decided to increase efforts to address the tsetse and trypanosomosis problem on the African continent and created the Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC). In this context, the Government of Senegal initiated a tsetse eradication program in the Niayes area using a Glossina palpalis gambiensis strain originating from Burkina Faso. The objective of this thesis was to optimize the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) in West Africa in order to control the tsetse flies. A system to transport mature pupae over long distances has been developed and validated for male G. p. gambiensis pupae produced and irradiated either in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso or in Bratislava, Slovakia (irradiation done in Seibersdorf, Austria) and then transported by air to Dakar, Senegal. The system, constituted of an insulated box and S8 packs, allowed the maintenance of pupae at a temperature of 10 ± 3°C and their transport during 2-3 days to the emergence center of ISRA, where they molted into sterile males which were used for the sterile insect technique.A quality control was carried out on a sample of 50 pupae from each batch (at least 2 batches per shipment) to determine the flight ability of sterile males and their survival under stress conditions (without feeding). The remaining emerging pupae were released in the target area of the eradication programme and were considered as control group. The described protocol for quality control will allow accurate monitoring of the quality of sterile males used in operational eradication programs organized in the context of PATTEC.A molecular tool to distinguish between sterile and wild males was also developed using the mitochondrial gene COI (cytochrome oxidase). We showed that COI sequences of released flies (reared in insectary) are 100% identical and different from those of wild flies.Furthermore, in order to determine the optimal rearing conditions for G. p. gambiensis strains and to identify the strain that would be the best adapted to a particular environment or country in the context of a control with an SIT component, life history (survival and fecundity) of three G. p. gambiensis strains (strains originating from Burkina Faso (BKF), Senegal (SEN), and an introgressed strain (SENbkf)) were investigated at different temperatures and relative humidity conditions. The optimal temperature for the mass-rearing was 25 ± 1°C, 24.6 ± 1°C and 23.9 ± 1°C for BKF, SENbkf and SEN respectively. The relative humidity ranging from 40 to 75% had very little influence on the survival and fecundity. The BKF strain resisted better at higher temperatures than the SENbkf and SEN strains but the temperature limit for survival was about 32°C for all three strains.
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Soumaïla Pagabeleguem. Lutte contre les mouches tsé-tsé en Afrique de l’Ouest : optimisation de l’utilisation de la technique de l’insecte stérile. Microbiologie et Parasitologie. Université Montpellier, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015MONTS253⟩. ⟨tel-02168460⟩

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