C. L. Langrish, Y. Chen, W. M. Blumenschein, J. Mattson, B. Basham et al., IL-23 drives a pathogenic T cell population that induces autoimmune inflammation, J Exp Med, vol.201, pp.233-273, 2005.

T. Korn, E. Bettelli, M. Oukka, and V. K. Kuchroo, IL-17 and Th17 Cells, Annu Rev Immunol, vol.27, pp.485-517, 2009.

, , 19132915.

E. V. Acosta-rodriguez, L. Rivino, J. Geginat, D. Jarrossay, M. Gattorno et al., Surface phenotype and antigenic specificity of human interleukin 17-producing T helper memory cells, Nat Immunol, vol.8, pp.639-685, 2007.

F. Chalmin, G. Mignot, M. Bruchard, A. Chevriaux, F. Vegran et al., Stat3 and Gfi-1 transcription factors control Th17 cell immunosuppres activity via the regulation of ectonucleotidase expression, Immunity, vol.36, pp.362-73, 2012.

,

Y. Zhangjp, . Xuj, . Pangxh, . Chenms, . Lil et al., Increased intratumoral IL-17-producing cells correlate with poor survival in hepatocellular carcinoma patients, J Hepatol, vol.50, pp.980-989, 2009.

,

X. Chen, J. Wan, J. Liu, W. Xie, X. Diao et al., Increased IL-17-producing cells correlate with poor survival and lymphangiogenesis in NSCLC patients, Lung Cancer, vol.69, pp.348-54, 2010.

, PMID, 20022135.

,

M. Tosolini, A. Kirilovsky, B. Mlecnik, T. Fredriksen, S. Mauger et al., Clinical impact of different classes of infiltrating T cytotoxic and helper cells (Th1, th2, treg, th17) in patients with colorectal cancer, Cancer Res, vol.71, pp.1263-71, 2011.

P. Muranski, Z. A. Borman, S. P. Kerkar, C. A. Klebanoff, Y. Ji et al., Th17 cells are long lived and retain a stem cell-like molecular signature, Immunity, vol.35, pp.972-85, 2011.

,

I. Kryczek, M. Banerjee, P. Cheng, L. Vatan, W. Szeliga et al., Phenotype, distribution, generation, and functional and clinical relevance of Th17 cells in the human tumor environments, Blood, vol.114, pp.1141-1150, 2009.

, , 19470694.

M. Bruchard, G. Mignot, V. Derangere, F. Chalmin, A. Chevriaux et al., Chemotherapy-triggered cathepsin B release in myeloid-derived suppressor cells activates the Nlrp3 inflammasome and promotes tumor growth
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00919371

, Nat Med, vol.19, pp.57-64, 2013.

A. S. Chung, X. Wu, G. Zhuang, H. Ngu, I. Kasman et al., An interleukin-17-mediated paracrine network promotes tumor resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy, Nat Med, vol.19, pp.1114-1137, 2013.

Y. D. Mahnke and M. Roederer, Optimizing a multicolor immunophenotyping assay, Clin Lab Med, 2007.

T. References-akimova, H. Xiao, Y. Liu, T. R. Bhatti, J. Jiao et al., , 2014.

, Mucosal Immunol, vol.7, pp.1209-1220

M. Aldea, L. Craciun, C. Tomuleasa, I. Berindan-neagoe, G. Kacso et al., Repositioning metformin in cancer: genetics, drug targets, and new ways of delivery, Tumor Biol, vol.35, pp.5101-5110, 2014.

H. Berger, F. Vé-gran, M. Chikh, F. Gilardi, S. Ladoire et al., SOCS3 transactivation by PPARg prevents IL-17-driven cancer growth, Cancer Res, vol.73, pp.3578-3590, 2013.

E. Bettelli, T. Korn, M. Oukka, and V. K. Kuchroo, Induction and effector functions of T H 17 cells, Nature, vol.453, pp.1051-1057, 2008.

A. Bishayee, Cancer prevention and treatment with resveratrol: from rodent studies to clinical trials, Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.), vol.2, pp.409-418, 2009.

M. Bruchard, G. Mignot, V. Derangè-re, F. Chalmin, A. Chevriaux et al., Chemotherapy-triggered cathepsin B release in myeloid-derived suppressor cells activates the Nlrp3 inflammasome and promotes tumor growth, Nat. Med, vol.19, pp.57-64, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00919371

F. Chalmin, G. Mignot, M. Bruchard, A. Chevriaux, F. Vé-gran et al., Stat3 and Gfi-1 transcription factors control Th17 cell immunosuppressive activity via the regulation of ectonucleotidase expression, Immunity, vol.36, pp.362-373, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00821485

N. S. Chandel, D. Avizonis, C. R. Reczek, S. E. Weinberg, S. Menz et al., Are metformin doses used in murine cancer models clinically relevant?, Cell Metab, vol.23, pp.569-570, 2016.

D. Chauhan, M. Bandi, A. V. Singh, A. Ray, N. Raje et al., Preclinical evaluation of a novel SIRT1 modulator SRT1720 in multiple myeloma cells, Br. J. Haematol, vol.155, pp.588-598, 2011.

C. W. Chen, R. P. Koche, A. U. Sinha, A. J. Deshpande, N. Zhu et al., DOT1L inhibits SIRT1-mediated epigenetic silencing to maintain leukemic gene expression in MLLrearranged leukemia, Nat. Med, vol.21, pp.335-343, 2015.

C. C. Chini, J. M. Espindola-netto, G. Mondal, A. M. Guerrico, V. Nin et al.,

, SIRT1-activating compounds (STAC) negatively regulate pancreatic cancer cell growth and viability through a SIRT1 lysosomal-dependent pathway, Clin. Cancer Res, vol.22, pp.2496-2507

R. T. Chlebowski, A. Mctiernan, J. Wactawski-wende, J. E. Manson, A. K. Aragaki et al., Diabetes, metformin, and breast cancer in postmenopausal women, J. Clin. Oncol, vol.30, pp.2844-2852, 2012.

M. Ciofani, A. Madar, C. Galan, M. Sellars, K. Mace et al., A validated regulatory network for Th17 cell specification, Cell, vol.151, pp.289-303, 2012.

C. Dong, TH17 cells in development: an updated view of their molecular identity and genetic programming, Nat. Rev. Immunol, vol.8, pp.337-348, 2008.

L. Durant, W. T. Watford, H. L. Ramos, A. Laurence, G. Vahedi et al., , 2010.

, Diverse targets of the transcription factor STAT3 contribute to T cell pathogenicity and homeostasis, Immunity, vol.32, pp.605-615

S. L. Gaffen, An overview of IL-17 function and signaling, Cytokine, vol.43, pp.402-407, 2008.

F. Ghisays, C. S. Brace, S. M. Yackly, H. J. Kwon, K. F. Mills et al., The N-terminal domain of SIRT1 is a positive regulator of endogenous SIRT1-dependent deacetylation and transcriptional outputs, Cell Rep, vol.10, pp.1665-1673, 2015.

Z. Gong, A. K. Aragaki, R. T. Chlebowski, J. E. Manson, T. E. Rohan et al., Diabetes, metformin and incidence of and death from invasive cancer in postmenopausal women: results from the women's health initiative, Int. J. Cancer, vol.138, pp.1915-1927, 2016.

L. Han, R. Zhou, J. Niu, M. A. Mcnutt, P. Wang et al., SIRT1 is regulated by a PPARg-SIRT1 negative feedback loop associated with senescence, Nucleic Acids Res, vol.38, pp.7458-7471, 2010.

K. B. Harikumar, A. B. Kunnumakkara, G. Sethi, P. Diagaradjane, P. Anand et al., , 2010.

, Resveratrol, a multitargeted agent, can enhance antitumor activity of gemcitabine in vitro and in orthotopic mouse model of human pancreatic cancer, Int. J. Cancer, vol.127, pp.257-268

C. E. Harper, B. B. Patel, J. Wang, A. Arabshahi, I. A. Eltoum et al., Resveratrol suppresses prostate cancer progression in transgenic mice, Carcinogenesis, vol.28, pp.1946-1953, 2007.

D. He, H. Li, N. Yusuf, C. A. Elmets, J. Li et al., , 2010.

, IL-17 promotes tumor development through the induction of tumor promoting microenvironments at tumor sites and myeloid-derived suppressor cells, J. Immunol, vol.184, pp.2281-2288

X. K. He, T. T. Su, J. M. Si, and L. M. Sun, Metformin is associated with slightly reduced risk of colorectal cancer and moderate survival benefits in diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis, Medicine, p.2749, 2016.

C. H. Hung, S. H. Chan, P. M. Chu, H. C. Lin, and K. L. Tsai, Metformin regulates oxLDL-facilitated endothelial dysfunction by modulation of SIRT1 through repressing LOX-1-modulated oxidative signaling, Oncotarget, vol.7, p.10773, 2016.

I. I. Ivanov, B. S. Mckenzie, L. Zhou, C. E. Tadokoro, A. Lepelley et al., The orphan nuclear receptor RORgammat directs the differentiation program of proinflammatory, p.17, 2006.

, + T helper cells. Cell, vol.126, pp.1121-1133

E. J. Kim, J. H. Kho, M. R. Kang, and S. J. Um, Active regulator of SIRT1 cooperates with SIRT1 and facilitates suppression of p53 activity, Mol. Cell, vol.28, pp.277-290, 2007.

A. Laurence, C. M. Tato, T. S. Davidson, Y. Kanno, Z. Chen et al., Interleukin-2 signaling via STAT5 constrains T helper 17 cell generation, Immunity, vol.26, pp.371-381, 2007.

S. C. Liang, X. Y. Tan, D. P. Luxenberg, R. Karim, K. Dunussi-joannopoulos et al., Interleukin (IL)-22 and IL-17 are coexpressed by Th17 cells and cooperatively enhance expression of antimicrobial peptides, J. Exp. Med, vol.203, pp.2271-2279, 2006.

H. W. Lim, S. G. Kang, J. K. Ryu, B. Schilling, M. Fei et al., SIRT1 deacetylates RORgt and enhances Th17 cell generation, J. Exp. Med, vol.212, pp.607-617, 2015.

J. Liu, Y. Duan, X. Cheng, X. Chen, W. Xie et al.,

, IL-17 is associated with poor prognosis and promotes angiogenesis via stimulating VEGF production of cancer cells in colorectal carcinoma, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun, vol.407, pp.348-354

C. Loncle, L. Bonjoch, E. Folch-puy, M. B. Lopez-millan, S. Lac et al., IL17 functions through the novel REG3b-JAK2-STAT3, vol.75, pp.4852-4862, 2015.

J. Lu, L. Zhang, X. Chen, Q. Lu, Y. Yang et al., SIRT1 counteracted the activation of STAT3 and NF-kB to repress the gastric cancer growth, Int. J. Clin. Exp. Med, vol.7, pp.5050-5058, 2014.

Y. D. Mahnke and M. Roederer, Optimizing a multicolor immunophenotyping assay, Clin. Lab. Med, vol.27, pp.469-485, 2007.

F. Martin, L. Apetoh, and F. Ghiringhelli, Controversies on the role of Th17 in cancer: a TGF-b-dependent immunosuppressive activity?, Trends Mol. Med, vol.18, pp.742-749, 2012.

N. Martin-orozco, P. Muranski, Y. Chung, X. O. Yang, T. Yamazaki et al., T helper 17 cells promote cytotoxic T cell activation in tumor immunity, Immunity, vol.31, pp.787-798, 2009.

Y. Nie, D. M. Erion, Z. Yuan, M. Dietrich, G. I. Shulman et al., STAT3 inhibition of gluconeogenesis is downregulated by SirT1, Nat. Cell Biol, vol.11, pp.492-500, 2009.

M. Numasaki, J. Fukushi, M. Ono, S. K. Narula, P. J. Zavodny et al., Interleukin-17 promotes angiogenesis and tumor growth, Blood, vol.101, pp.2620-2627, 2003.

I. Pernicova and M. Korbonits, Metformin-mode of action and clinical implications for diabetes and cancer, Nat. Rev. Endocrinol, vol.10, pp.143-156, 2014.

Q. Ruan, C. , and Y. H. , Nuclear factor-kB in immunity and inflammation: the Treg and Th17 connection, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol, vol.946, pp.207-221, 2012.

R. Sestito, S. Madonna, C. Scarponi, F. Cianfarani, C. M. Failla et al., , 2011.

Y. M. Song, Y. H. Lee, J. W. Kim, D. S. Ham, E. S. Kang et al., Metformin alleviates hepatosteatosis by restoring SIRT1-mediated autophagy induction via an AMP-activated protein kinaseindependent pathway, Autophagy, vol.11, pp.46-59, 2015.

G. L. Stritesky, N. Yeh, and M. H. Kaplan, IL-23 promotes maintenance but not commitment to the Th17 lineage, J. Immunol, vol.181, pp.5948-5955, 2008.

Y. Sun, T. Tian, J. Gao, X. Liu, H. Hou et al.,

, J. Neuroimmunol, vol.292, pp.58-67

M. Thibaudin, M. Chaix, R. Boidot, F. Vé-gran, V. Derangè-re et al., Human ectonucleotidase-expressing CD25(high) Th17 cells accumulate in breast cancer tumors and exert immunosuppressive functions, OncoImmunology, vol.5, p.1055444, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01438254

M. Tosolini, A. Kirilovsky, B. Mlecnik, T. Fredriksen, S. Mauger et al., Clinical impact of different classes of infiltrating T cytotoxic and helper cells (Th1, th2, treg, th17) in patients with colorectal cancer, Cancer Res, vol.71, pp.1263-1271, 2011.

P. L. Tyack, J. Calambokidis, A. Friedlaender, J. Goldbogen, B. Southall et al., First long-term behavioral records from Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris) reveal record-breaking dives, PLoS One, vol.9, issue.3, p.92633, 2014.

M. Veldhoen, K. Hirota, J. Christensen, A. O'garra, and B. Stockinger, Natural agonists for aryl hydrocarbon receptor in culture medium are essential for optimal differentiation of Th17 T cells, J. Exp. Med, vol.206, pp.43-49, 2009.

L. Wang, T. Yi, M. Kortylewski, D. M. Pardoll, D. Zeng et al., , 2009.

, IL-17 can promote tumor growth through an IL-6-Stat3 signaling pathway, J. Exp. Med, vol.206, pp.1457-1464

M. Principi, M. Barone, M. Pricci, D. Tullio, N. Losurdo et al., Ulcerative colitis: from inflammation to cancer. Do estrogen receptors have a role, World J Gastroenterol, vol.20, pp.11496-11500, 2014.

J. Galon, A. Costes, F. Sanchez-cabo, A. Kirilovsky, B. Mlecnik et al., Type, density, and location of immune cells within human colorectal tumors predict clinical outcome, Science, vol.313, pp.1960-64, 2006.

F. Pag-es, A. Berger, M. Camus, F. Sanchez-cabo, A. Costes et al., Effector memory T cells, early metastasis, and survival in colorectal cancer, The N Engl J Med, vol.353, pp.2654-66, 2005.

P. Salama, C. Stewart, C. Forrest, C. Platell, and B. Iacopetta, FOXP3þ cell density in lymphoid follicles from histologically normal mucosa is a strong prognostic factor in early stage colon cancer, Cancer Immunol Immunother, vol.61, pp.1183-90, 2012.

G. Bindea, B. Mlecnik, M. Tosolini, A. Kirilovsky, M. Waldner et al., Spatiotemporal dynamics of intratumoral immune cells reveal the immune landscape in human cancer, Immunity, vol.39, pp.782-95, 2013.

Z. Mei, Y. Liu, C. Liu, A. Cui, Z. Liang et al., Tumour-infiltrating inflammation and prognosis in colorectal cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis, Br J Cancer, vol.110, pp.1595-605, 2014.

P. Salama, M. Phillips, F. Grieu, M. Morris, N. Zeps et al., Tumorinfiltrating FOXP3þ T regulatory cells show strong prognostic significance in colorectal cancer, J Clin Oncol, vol.27, pp.186-92, 2009.

J. Liu, Y. Duan, X. Cheng, X. Chen, W. Xie et al., IL-17 is associated with poor prognosis and promotes angiogenesis via stimulating VEGF production of cancer cells in colorectal carcinoma, Biochem Biophys Res Commun, vol.407, pp.348-54, 2011.

A. S. Chung, X. Wu, G. Zhuang, H. Ngu, I. Kasman et al., An interleukin-17-mediated paracrine network promotes tumor resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy, Nat Med, vol.19, pp.1114-1137, 2013.

L. Apetoh, F. Vegran, S. Ladoire, and F. Ghiringhelli, Restoration of antitumor immunity through selective inhibition of myeloid derived suppressor cells by anticancer therapies, Curr Mol Med, vol.11, pp.365-72, 2011.

D. Marvel and D. I. Gabrilovich, Myeloid-derived suppressor cells in the tumor microenvironment: expect the unexpected, J Clin Invest, vol.125, pp.3356-64, 2015.

D. I. Gabrilovich, S. Ostrand-rosenberg, and V. Bronte, Coordinated regulation of myeloid cells by tumours, Nat Rev Immunol, vol.12, pp.253-68, 2012.

S. Solito, I. Marigo, L. Pinton, V. Damuzzo, and S. Mandruzzato, Myeloidderived suppressor cell heterogeneity in human cancers, Ann N Y Acad Sci, vol.1319, pp.47-65, 2014.

L. Y. Ouyang, X. J. Wu, S. B. Ye, R. X. Zhang, Z. L. Li et al., Tumorinduced myeloid-derived suppressor cells promote tumor progression through oxidative metabolism in human colorectal cancer, J Transl Med, vol.13, p.47, 2015.

J. Vincent, G. Mignot, F. Chalmin, S. Ladoire, M. Bruchard et al., 5-Fluorouracil selectively kills tumor-associated myeloid-derived suppressor cells resulting in enhanced T cell-dependent antitumor immunity, Cancer Res, vol.70, pp.3052-61, 2010.

M. Bruchard, G. Mignot, V. Derang-ere, F. Chalmin, A. Chevriaux et al., Chemotherapy-triggered cathepsin B release in myeloid-derived suppressor cells activates the Nlrp3 inflammasome and promotes tumor growth, Nat Med, vol.19, pp.57-64, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00919371

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent et al., New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1), Eur J Cancer, vol.45, pp.228-275, 2009.

N. J. Mccleary, J. A. Meyerhardt, E. Green, G. Yothers, A. De-gramont et al., Impact of age on the efficacy of newer adjuvant therapies in patients with stage II/III colon cancer: findings from the ACCENT database, J Clin Oncol, vol.31, pp.2600-2606, 2013.

Y. D. Mahnke and M. Roederer, Optimizing a multicolor immunophenotyping assay, Clin Lab Med, vol.27, pp.469-85, 2007.

A. Tesniere, L. Apetoh, F. Ghiringhelli, N. Joza, T. Panaretakis et al., Immunogenic cancer cell death: a key-lock paradigm, Curr Opin Immunol, vol.20, pp.504-515, 2008.

B. Zhang, Z. Wang, L. Wu, M. Zhang, W. Li et al., Circulating and tumorinfiltrating myeloid-derived suppressor cells in patients with colorectal carcinoma, PLoS One, vol.8, p.57114, 2013.

J. Bastid, A. Cottalorda-regairaz, G. Alberici, N. Bonnefoy, and J. F. Eliaou, Bensussan A. ENTPD1/CD39 is a promising therapeutic target in oncology, Oncogene, vol.32, pp.1743-51, 2013.

F. C-h-e-nm, C. Nf, C. , S. , Y. et al., IL-6-stimulated CD11bþ CD14þ HLA-DR-myeloid-derived suppressor cells, are associated with progression and poor prognosis in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus, Oncotarget, vol.5, pp.8716-8744, 2014.

M. Idorn, T. Kollgaard, P. Kongsted, L. Sengelov, T. Straten et al., Correlation between frequencies of blood monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells, regulatory T cells and negative prognostic markers in patients with castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer, Cancer Immunol Immunother, vol.63, pp.1177-87, 2014.

A. Romano, N. L. Parrinello, C. Vetro, S. Forte, A. Chiarenza et al., Circulating myeloid-derived suppressor cells correlate with clinical outcome in Hodgkin lymphoma patients treated up-front with a risk-adapted strategy, Br J Haematol, vol.168, pp.689-700, 2015.

J. Kanterman, M. Sade-feldman, M. Biton, E. Ish-shalom, A. Lasry et al., Adverse immunoregulatory effects of 5FU and CPT11 chemotherapy on myeloid-derived suppressor cells and colorectal cancer outcomes, Cancer Res, vol.74, pp.6022-6057, 2014.

, Cancer Research, vol.76, issue.18, 2016.

. Limagne,

E. V. Acosta-rodriguez, L. Rivino, J. Geginat, D. Jarrossay, M. Gattorno et al., Surface phenotype and antigenic specificity of human interleukin 17-producing T helper memory cells, Nature immunology, vol.8, pp.639-646, 2007.

S. Adams, R. J. Gray, S. Demaria, L. Goldstein, E. A. Perez et al., Prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in triplenegative breast cancers from two phase III randomized adjuvant breast cancer trials: ECOG 2197 and ECOG 1199, Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, vol.32, pp.2959-2966, 2014.

D. O. Adeegbe and H. Nishikawa, Natural and induced T regulatory cells in cancer, Frontiers in immunology, vol.4, 0190.

J. A. Aguirre-ghiso, Models, mechanisms and clinical evidence for cancer dormancy, Nature reviews Cancer, vol.7, pp.834-846, 2007.

I. Algarra, T. Cabrera, and F. Garrido, The HLA crossroad in tumor immunology, Human immunology, vol.61, pp.65-73, 2000.

F. Annunziato, L. Cosmi, F. Liotta, E. Maggi, and S. Romagnani, The phenotype of human Th17 cells and their precursors, the cytokines that mediate their differentiation and the role of Th17 cells in inflammation, International immunology, vol.20, pp.1361-1368, 2008.

A. Aruga, E. Aruga, K. Tanigawa, D. K. Bishop, V. K. Sondak et al., Type 1 versus type 2 cytokine release by Vbeta T cell subpopulations determines in vivo antitumor reactivity: IL-10 mediates a suppressive role, Journal of immunology, vol.159, pp.664-673, 1997.

C. Aspord, A. Pedroza-gonzalez, M. Gallegos, S. Tindle, E. C. Burton et al., Breast cancer instructs dendritic cells to prime interleukin 13-secreting CD4+ T cells that facilitate tumor development, The Journal of experimental medicine, vol.204, pp.1037-1047, 2007.

O. Awe, M. M. Hufford, H. Wu, D. Pham, H. C. Chang et al., PU.1 Expression in T Follicular Helper Cells Limits CD40L-Dependent Germinal Center B Cell Development, Journal of immunology, vol.195, pp.3705-3715, 2015.

C. Badoual, S. Hans, J. Rodriguez, S. Peyrard, C. Klein et al., Prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating CD4+ T-cell subpopulations in head and neck cancers, Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, vol.12, pp.465-472, 2006.

S. R. Bailey, M. H. Nelson, R. A. Himes, Z. Li, S. Mehrotra et al., Th17 cells in cancer: the ultimate identity crisis, Frontiers in immunology, vol.5, p.276, 2014.

J. Banchereau, F. Briere, C. Caux, J. Davoust, S. Lebecque et al., Immunobiology of dendritic cells, Annual review of immunology, vol.18, pp.767-811, 2000.

J. Banchereau and R. M. Steinman, Dendritic cells and the control of immunity, Nature, vol.392, pp.245-252, 1998.

J. Barbi, D. Pardoll, and F. Pan, Metabolic control of the Treg/Th17 axis, Immunological reviews, vol.252, pp.52-77, 2013.

R. Bassil, W. Orent, M. Olah, A. T. Kurdi, M. Frangieh et al., BCL6 controls Th9 cell development by repressing Il9 transcription, Journal of immunology, vol.193, pp.198-207, 2014.

G. J. Bates, S. B. Fox, C. Han, R. D. Leek, J. F. Garcia et al., , 2006.

, Quantification of regulatory T cells enables the identification of high-risk breast cancer patients and those at risk of late relapse, Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, vol.24, pp.5373-5380

P. A. Beavis, J. Stagg, P. K. Darcy, and M. J. Smyth, CD73: a potent suppressor of antitumor immune responses, Trends in immunology, vol.33, pp.231-237, 2012.

E. Becht, N. A. Giraldo, C. Germain, A. De-reynies, P. Laurent-puig et al., Immune Contexture, Immunoscore, and Malignant Cell Molecular Subgroups for Prognostic and Theranostic Classifications of Cancers, Advances in immunology, vol.130, pp.95-190, 2016.

R. D. Bense, C. Sotiriou, M. J. Piccart-gebhart, J. B. Haanen, M. A. Van-vugt et al., Relevance of Tumor-Infiltrating Immune Cell Composition and Functionality for Disease Outcome in Breast Cancer, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol.109, 2017.

H. Berger, F. Vegran, M. Chikh, F. Gilardi, S. Ladoire et al., SOCS3 transactivation by PPARgamma prevents IL-17-driven cancer growth, Cancer research, vol.73, pp.3578-3590, 2013.

E. Bettelli, Y. Carrier, W. Gao, T. Korn, T. B. Strom et al., Reciprocal developmental pathways for the generation of pathogenic effector TH17 and regulatory T cells, Nature, vol.441, pp.235-238, 2006.

G. Bianchini, L. Pusztai, T. Pienkowski, Y. H. Im, G. V. Bianchi et al., Immune modulation of pathologic complete response after neoadjuvant HER2-directed therapies in the NeoSphere trial, Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / ESMO, vol.26, pp.2429-2436, 2015.

G. Bindea, B. Mlecnik, M. Tosolini, A. Kirilovsky, M. Waldner et al., Spatiotemporal dynamics of intratumoral immune cells reveal the immune landscape in human cancer, Immunity, vol.39, pp.782-795, 2013.

L. Bingle, N. J. Brown, and C. E. Lewis, The role of tumour-associated macrophages in tumour progression: implications for new anticancer therapies, The Journal of pathology, vol.196, pp.254-265, 2002.

H. Braumuller, T. Wieder, E. Brenner, S. Assmann, M. Hahn et al., T-helper-1-cell cytokines drive cancer into senescence, Nature, vol.494, pp.361-365, 2013.

D. Breitfeld, L. Ohl, E. Kremmer, J. Ellwart, F. Sallusto et al., Follicular B helper T cells express CXC chemokine receptor 5, localize to B cell follicles, and support immunoglobulin production, The Journal of experimental medicine, vol.192, pp.1545-1552, 2000.

V. Bronte and P. Zanovello, Regulation of immune responses by L-arginine metabolism, Nature reviews Immunology, vol.5, pp.641-654, 2005.

M. Bruchard, G. Mignot, V. Derangere, F. Chalmin, A. Chevriaux et al., Chemotherapy-triggered cathepsin B release in myeloidderived suppressor cells activates the Nlrp3 inflammasome and promotes tumor growth, Nature medicine, vol.19, pp.57-64, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00919371

A. Bruno, A. Pagani, L. Pulze, A. Albini, K. Dallaglio et al., Orchestration of angiogenesis by immune cells, Frontiers in oncology, vol.4, p.131, 2014.

A. Brustle, S. Heink, M. Huber, C. Rosenplanter, C. Stadelmann et al., The development of inflammatory T(H)-17 cells requires interferon-regulatory factor 4, Nature immunology, vol.8, pp.958-966, 2007.

B. Burkholder, R. Y. Huang, R. Burgess, S. Luo, V. S. Jones et al., Tumor-induced perturbations of cytokines and immune cell networks, Biochimica et biophysica acta, vol.1845, pp.182-201, 2014.

F. M. Burnet, The concept of immunological surveillance, Progress in experimental tumor research, vol.13, pp.1-27, 1970.

M. Burnet, Cancer; a biological approach. I. The processes of control, British medical journal, vol.1, pp.779-786, 1957.

T. Cabrera, M. Fernandez, A. Sierra, A. Garrido, A. Herruzo et al., High frequency of altered HLA class I phenotypes in invasive breast carcinomas, Human immunology, vol.50, pp.127-134, 1996.

I. Caras, A. Grigorescu, C. Stavaru, D. L. Radu, I. Mogos et al., Evidence for immune defects in breast and lung cancer patients, Cancer immunology, immunotherapy : CII, vol.53, pp.1146-1152, 2004.

J. Carreras, A. Lopez-guillermo, B. C. Fox, L. Colomo, A. Martinez et al., High numbers of tumor-infiltrating FOXP3-positive regulatory T cells are associated with improved overall survival in follicular lymphoma, Blood, vol.108, pp.2957-2964, 2006.

M. Carrington, S. Wang, M. P. Martin, X. Gao, M. Schiffman et al., Hierarchy of resistance to cervical neoplasia mediated by combinations of killer immunoglobulin-like receptor and human leukocyte antigen loci, The Journal of experimental medicine, vol.201, pp.1069-1075, 2005.

S. Chaitchik, B. Kabakow, A. De-chabon, J. J. Jonson, A. Bar-eyal et al., Prognostic factors in breast cancer--a pathological and immunological study of patients with stage 1 breast cancer, European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology, vol.13, pp.499-504, 1987.

F. Chalmin, S. Ladoire, G. Mignot, J. Vincent, M. Bruchard et al., Membrane-associated Hsp72 from tumor-derived exosomes mediates STAT3-dependent immunosuppressive function of mouse and human myeloidderived suppressor cells, The Journal of clinical investigation, vol.120, pp.457-471, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00451697

F. Chalmin, G. Mignot, M. Bruchard, A. Chevriaux, F. Vegran et al., Stat3 and Gfi-1 transcription factors control Th17 cell immunosuppressive activity via the regulation of ectonucleotidase expression, Immunity, vol.36, pp.362-373, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00821485

H. C. Chang, L. Han, R. Jabeen, S. Carotta, S. L. Nutt et al., PU.1 regulates TCR expression by modulating GATA-3 activity, Journal of immunology, vol.183, pp.4887-4894, 2009.

H. C. Chang, S. Sehra, R. Goswami, W. Yao, Q. Yu et al., The transcription factor PU.1 is required for the development of IL-9-producing T cells and allergic inflammation, Nature immunology, vol.11, pp.527-534, 2010.

H. C. Chang, S. Zhang, V. T. Thieu, R. B. Slee, H. A. Bruns et al., PU.1 expression delineates heterogeneity in primary Th2 cells, Immunity, vol.22, pp.693-703, 2005.

J. G. Chen, J. C. Xia, X. T. Liang, K. Pan, W. Wang et al., Intratumoral expression of IL-17 and its prognostic role in gastric adenocarcinoma patients, International journal of biological sciences, vol.7, pp.53-60, 2011.

W. Chen, W. Jin, N. Hardegen, K. J. Lei, L. Li et al., Conversion of peripheral CD4+CD25-naive T cells to CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells by TGF-beta induction of transcription factor Foxp3, The Journal of experimental medicine, vol.198, pp.1875-1886, 2003.

W. C. Chen, Y. H. Lai, H. Y. Chen, H. R. Guo, I. J. Su et al., Interleukin-17-producing cell infiltration in the breast cancer tumour microenvironment is a poor prognostic factor, Histopathology, vol.63, pp.225-233, 2013.

X. Chen, J. Wan, J. Liu, W. Xie, X. Diao et al., Increased IL-17-producing cells correlate with poor survival and lymphangiogenesis in NSCLC patients, Lung cancer, vol.69, pp.348-354, 2010.

V. Chew, J. Chen, D. Lee, E. Loh, J. Lee et al., Chemokine-driven lymphocyte infiltration: an early intratumoural event determining long-term survival in resectable hepatocellular carcinoma, Gut, vol.61, pp.427-438, 2012.

A. S. Chung, X. Wu, G. Zhuang, H. Ngu, I. Kasman et al., An interleukin-17-mediated paracrine network promotes tumor resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy, Nature medicine, vol.19, pp.1114-1123, 2013.

M. Ciofani, A. Madar, C. Galan, M. Sellars, K. Mace et al., A validated regulatory network for Th17 cell specification, Cell, vol.151, pp.289-303, 2012.

R. A. Clark, B. Chong, N. Mirchandani, N. K. Brinster, K. Yamanaka et al., The vast majority of CLA+ T cells are resident in normal skin, Journal of immunology, vol.176, pp.4431-4439, 2006.

W. H. Clark, . Jr, D. E. Elder, D. T. Guerry, L. E. Braitman et al., Model predicting survival in stage I melanoma based on tumor progression, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol.81, pp.1893-1904, 1989.

C. G. Clemente, M. C. Mihm, . Jr, R. Bufalino, S. Zurrida et al., , 1996.

, Prognostic value of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in the vertical growth phase of primary cutaneous melanoma, Cancer, vol.77, pp.1303-1310

W. B. Coley, II. Contribution to the Knowledge of Sarcoma, Annals of surgery, vol.14, pp.199-220, 1891.

W. B. Coley, The treatment of malignant tumors by repeated inoculations of erysipelas. With a report of ten original cases. 1893, Clinical orthopaedics and related research, pp.3-11, 1893.

L. A. Cooney, K. Towery, J. Endres, and D. A. Fox, Sensitivity and resistance to regulation by IL-4 during Th17 maturation, Journal of immunology, vol.187, pp.4440-4450, 2011.

C. Cortelazzi, N. Campanini, R. Ricci, D. Panfilis, and G. , Inflammed skin harbours Th9 cells, Acta dermato-venereologica, vol.93, pp.183-185, 2013.

F. J. Couch, K. L. Nathanson, and K. Offit, Two decades after BRCA: setting paradigms in personalized cancer care and prevention, Science, vol.343, pp.1466-1470, 2014.

M. Croce, V. Rigo, and S. Ferrini, IL-21: a pleiotropic cytokine with potential applications in oncology, Journal of immunology research, p.696578, 2015.

D. J. Cua, J. Sherlock, Y. Chen, C. A. Murphy, B. Joyce et al., Interleukin-23 rather than interleukin-12 is the critical cytokine for autoimmune inflammation of the brain, Nature, vol.421, pp.744-748, 2003.

J. Cui, Y. Chen, H. Y. Wang, and R. F. Wang, Mechanisms and pathways of innate immune activation and regulation in health and cancer, Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics, vol.10, pp.3270-3285, 2014.

T. J. Curiel, G. Coukos, L. Zou, X. Alvarez, P. Cheng et al., Specific recruitment of regulatory T cells in ovarian carcinoma fosters immune privilege and predicts reduced survival, Nature medicine, vol.10, pp.942-949, 2004.

M. A. Curotto-de-lafaille and J. J. Lafaille, Natural and adaptive foxp3+ regulatory T cells: more of the same or a division of labor?, Immunity, vol.30, pp.626-635, 2009.

R. E. Curtis, P. A. Rowlings, H. J. Deeg, D. A. Shriner, G. Socie et al., Solid cancers after bone marrow transplantation, The New England journal of medicine, vol.336, pp.897-904, 1997.

G. Danaei, S. Vander-hoorn, A. D. Lopez, C. J. Murray, M. Ezzati et al., Causes of cancer in the world: comparative risk assessment of nine behavioural and environmental risk factors, Risk Assessment collaborating, vol.366, pp.1784-1793, 2005.

E. V. Dang, J. Barbi, H. Y. Yang, D. Jinasena, H. Yu et al., Control of T(H)17/T(reg) balance by hypoxia-inducible factor 1, vol.146, pp.772-784, 2011.

V. Dardalhon, A. Awasthi, H. Kwon, G. Galileos, W. Gao et al., IL-4 inhibits TGF-beta-induced Foxp3+ T cells and, together with TGF-beta, generates IL-9+ IL-10+ Foxp3(-) effector T cells, Nature immunology, vol.9, pp.1347-1355, 2008.

M. R. Davis, Z. Zhu, D. M. Hansen, Q. Bai, and Y. Fang, The role of IL-21 in immunity and cancer, Cancer letters, vol.358, pp.107-114, 2015.

L. De-monte, M. Reni, E. Tassi, D. Clavenna, I. Papa et al., Intratumor T helper type 2 cell infiltrate correlates with cancer-associated fibroblast thymic stromal lymphopoietin production and reduced survival in pancreatic cancer, The Journal of experimental medicine, vol.208, pp.469-478, 2011.

S. Deaglio, K. M. Dwyer, W. Gao, D. Friedman, A. Usheva et al., Adenosine generation catalyzed by CD39 and CD73 expressed on regulatory T cells mediates immune suppression, The Journal of experimental medicine, vol.204, pp.1257-1265, 2007.

S. Demaria, M. D. Volm, R. L. Shapiro, H. T. Yee, R. Oratz et al., Development of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in breast cancer after neoadjuvant paclitaxel chemotherapy, Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, vol.7, pp.3025-3030, 2001.

D. G. Denardo, J. B. Barreto, P. Andreu, L. Vasquez, D. Tawfik et al., CD4(+) T cells regulate pulmonary metastasis of mammary carcinomas by enhancing protumor properties of macrophages, Cancer cell, vol.16, pp.91-102, 2009.

C. Denkert, S. Loibl, A. Noske, M. Roller, B. M. Muller et al., Tumor-associated lymphocytes as an independent predictor of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer, Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, vol.28, pp.105-113, 2010.

C. Denkert, G. Von-minckwitz, J. C. Brase, B. V. Sinn, S. Gade et al., Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy with or without carboplatin in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive and triple-negative primary breast cancers, Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, vol.33, pp.983-991, 2015.

E. Derhovanessian, V. Adams, K. Hahnel, A. Groeger, H. Pandha et al., , 2009.

, Pretreatment frequency of circulating IL-17+ CD4+ T-cells, but not Tregs, correlates with clinical response to whole-cell vaccination in prostate cancer patients, International journal of cancer Journal international du cancer, vol.125, pp.1372-1379

L. Derre, M. Corvaisier, B. Charreau, A. Moreau, E. Godefroy et al., Expression and release of HLA-E by melanoma cells and melanocytes: potential impact on the response of cytotoxic effector cells, Journal of immunology, vol.177, pp.3100-3107, 2006.

C. Desmedt, B. Haibe-kains, P. Wirapati, M. Buyse, D. Larsimont et al., Biological processes associated with breast cancer clinical outcome depend on the molecular subtypes, Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, vol.14, pp.5158-5165, 2008.

C. M. Diaz-montero, M. L. Salem, M. I. Nishimura, E. Garrett-mayer, D. J. Cole et al., Increased circulating myeloid-derived suppressor cells correlate with clinical cancer stage, metastatic tumor burden, and doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide chemotherapy, Cancer immunology, immunotherapy : CII, vol.58, pp.49-59, 2009.

M. V. Dieci, C. Criscitiello, A. Goubar, G. Viale, P. Conte et al., Prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes on residual disease after primary chemotherapy for triple-negative breast cancer: a retrospective multicenter study, Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / ESMO, vol.25, pp.611-618, 2014.

M. V. Dieci, M. C. Mathieu, V. Guarneri, P. Conte, S. Delaloge et al., , 2015.

, Prognostic and predictive value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in two phase III randomized adjuvant breast cancer trials, Medical Oncology / ESMO, vol.26, pp.1698-1704

M. C. Dieu-nosjean, M. Antoine, C. Danel, D. Heudes, M. Wislez et al., Long-term survival for patients with non-small-cell lung cancer with intratumoral lymphoid structures, Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, vol.26, pp.4410-4417, 2008.

A. S. Dighe, E. Richards, L. J. Old, and R. D. Schreiber, Enhanced in vivo growth and resistance to rejection of tumor cells expressing dominant negative IFN gamma receptors, Immunity, vol.1, pp.447-456, 1994.

H. Dong, S. E. Strome, D. R. Salomao, H. Tamura, F. Hirano et al., Tumor-associated B7-H1 promotes T-cell apoptosis: a potential mechanism of immune evasion, Nature medicine, vol.8, pp.793-800, 2002.

K. Drews-elger, E. Iorns, A. Dias, P. Miller, T. M. Ward et al., Infiltrating S100A8+ myeloid cells promote metastatic spread of human breast cancer and predict poor clinical outcome, Breast cancer research and treatment, vol.148, pp.41-59, 2014.

R. Du, H. Zhao, F. Yan, L. , and H. , IL-17+Foxp3+ T cells: an intermediate differentiation stage between Th17 cells and regulatory T cells, Journal of leukocyte biology, vol.96, pp.39-48, 2014.

G. P. Dunn, A. T. Bruce, H. Ikeda, L. J. Old, and R. D. Schreiber, Cancer immunoediting: from immunosurveillance to tumor escape, Nature immunology, vol.3, pp.991-998, 2002.

G. P. Dunn, C. M. Koebel, and R. D. Schreiber, Interferons, immunity and cancer immunoediting, Nature reviews Immunology, vol.6, pp.836-848, 2006.

G. P. Dunn, L. J. Old, and R. D. Schreiber, The immunobiology of cancer immunosurveillance and immunoediting, Immunity, vol.21, pp.137-148, 2004.

G. P. Dunn, L. J. Old, and R. D. Schreiber, The three Es of cancer immunoediting, Annual review of immunology, vol.22, pp.329-360, 2004.

K. M. Dwyer, D. Hanidziar, P. Putheti, P. A. Hill, S. Pommey et al., Expression of CD39 by human peripheral blood CD4+, 2010.

, CD25+ T cells denotes a regulatory memory phenotype, vol.10, pp.2410-2420

P. Ehrlich, Über den jetzigen stand der karzinomforschung, Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd, vol.5, pp.273-290, 1909.

Y. Fang, X. Chen, Q. Bai, C. Qin, A. O. Mohamud et al., IL-9 inhibits HTB-72 melanoma cell growth through upregulation of p21 and TRAIL, Journal of surgical oncology, vol.111, pp.969-974, 2015.

P. Farmer, H. Bonnefoi, V. Becette, M. Tubiana-hulin, P. Fumoleau et al., Identification of molecular apocrine breast tumours by microarray analysis, Oncogene, vol.24, pp.4660-4671, 2005.

G. Finak, N. Bertos, F. Pepin, S. Sadekova, M. Souleimanova et al., Stromal gene expression predicts clinical outcome in breast cancer, Nature medicine, vol.14, pp.518-527, 2008.

O. J. Finn, Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / ESMO 23 Suppl, vol.8, pp.6-9, 2012.

J. D. Fontenot, M. A. Gavin, and A. Y. Rudensky, Foxp3 programs the development and function of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells, Nature immunology, vol.4, pp.330-336, 2003.

E. E. Forbes, K. Groschwitz, J. P. Abonia, E. B. Brandt, E. Cohen et al., IL-9-and mast cell-mediated intestinal permeability predisposes to oral antigen hypersensitivity, The Journal of experimental medicine, vol.205, pp.897-913, 2008.

F. Fossiez, O. Djossou, P. Chomarat, L. Flores-romo, S. Ait-yahia et al., T cell interleukin-17 induces stromal cells to produce proinflammatory and hematopoietic cytokines, The Journal of experimental medicine, vol.183, pp.2593-2603, 1996.

W. H. Fridman, F. Pages, C. Sautes-fridman, and J. Galon, The immune contexture in human tumours: impact on clinical outcome, Nature reviews Cancer, vol.12, pp.298-306, 2012.

W. H. Fridman, R. Remark, J. Goc, N. A. Giraldo, E. Becht et al., The immune microenvironment: a major player in human cancers, International archives of allergy and immunology, vol.164, pp.13-26, 2014.

J. Fu, D. Xu, Z. Liu, M. Shi, P. Zhao et al., Increased regulatory T cells correlate with CD8 T-cell impairment and poor survival in hepatocellular carcinoma patients, Gastroenterology, vol.132, pp.2328-2339, 2007.

R. F. Gabitass, N. E. Annels, D. D. Stocken, H. A. Pandha, and G. W. Middleton, Elevated myeloid-derived suppressor cells in pancreatic, esophageal and gastric cancer are an independent prognostic factor and are associated with significant elevation of the Th2 cytokine interleukin-13, Cancer immunology, immunotherapy : CII, vol.60, pp.1419-1430, 2011.

D. Gabrilovich, T. Ishida, T. Oyama, S. Ran, V. Kravtsov et al., , 1998.

, Vascular endothelial growth factor inhibits the development of dendritic cells and dramatically affects the differentiation of multiple hematopoietic lineages in vivo, Blood, vol.92, pp.4150-4166

D. I. Gabrilovich, T. Ishida, S. Nadaf, J. E. Ohm, and D. P. Carbone, Antibodies to vascular endothelial growth factor enhance the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy by improving endogenous dendritic cell function, Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, vol.5, pp.2963-2970, 1999.

D. I. Gabrilovich and S. Nagaraj, Myeloid-derived suppressor cells as regulators of the immune system, Nature reviews Immunology, vol.9, pp.162-174, 2009.

D. I. Gabrilovich, S. Ostrand-rosenberg, and V. Bronte, Coordinated regulation of myeloid cells by tumours, Nature reviews Immunology, vol.12, pp.253-268, 2012.

J. Galon, A. Costes, F. Sanchez-cabo, A. Kirilovsky, B. Mlecnik et al., Type, density, and location of immune cells within human colorectal tumors predict clinical outcome, Science, vol.313, pp.1960-1964, 2006.

Q. Gao, S. J. Qiu, J. Fan, J. Zhou, X. Y. Wang et al., , 2007.

, Intratumoral balance of regulatory and cytotoxic T cells is associated with prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma after resection, Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, vol.25, pp.2586-2593

Q. Gao, X. Y. Wang, S. J. Qiu, J. Zhou, Y. H. Shi et al., Tumor stroma reaction-related gene signature predicts clinical outcome in human hepatocellular carcinoma, Cancer science, vol.102, pp.1522-1531, 2011.

K. Gerlach, Y. Hwang, A. Nikolaev, R. Atreya, H. Dornhoff et al., TH9 cells that express the transcription factor PU.1 drive T cellmediated colitis via IL-9 receptor signaling in intestinal epithelial cells, Nature immunology, vol.15, pp.676-686, 2014.

C. Ghirelli, F. Reyal, M. Jeanmougin, R. Zollinger, P. Sirven et al., Breast Cancer Cell-Derived GM-CSF Licenses Regulatory Th2 Induction by Plasmacytoid Predendritic Cells in Aggressive Disease Subtypes, vol.75, pp.2775-2787, 2015.

F. Ghiringhelli, M. Bruchard, F. Chalmin, R. , and C. , Production of adenosine by ectonucleotidases: a key factor in tumor immunoescape, Journal of biomedicine & biotechnology, p.473712, 2012.

M. Gilliet and Y. J. Liu, Generation of human CD8 T regulatory cells by CD40 ligand-activated plasmacytoid dendritic cells, The Journal of experimental medicine, vol.195, pp.695-704, 2002.

M. Giovarelli, P. Musiani, G. Garotta, R. Ebner, E. Di-carlo et al., A "stealth effect": adenocarcinoma cells engineered to express TRAIL elude tumor-specific and allogeneic T cell reactions, Journal of immunology, vol.163, pp.4886-4893, 1999.

N. A. Giraldo, E. Becht, F. Pages, G. Skliris, V. Verkarre et al., Orchestration and Prognostic Significance of Immune Checkpoints in the Microenvironment of Primary and Metastatic Renal Cell Cancer, Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, vol.21, pp.3031-3040, 2015.

E. Glasmacher, S. Agrawal, A. B. Chang, T. L. Murphy, W. Zeng et al., A genomic regulatory element that directs assembly and function of immune-specific AP-1-IRF complexes, Science, vol.338, pp.975-980, 2012.

M. Gobert, I. Treilleux, N. Bendriss-vermare, T. Bachelot, S. Goddard-leon et al., Regulatory T cells recruited through CCL22/CCR4 are selectively activated in lymphoid infiltrates surrounding primary breast tumors and lead to an adverse clinical outcome, Cancer research, vol.69, 2000.

B. Goeppert, L. Frauenschuh, M. Zucknick, A. Stenzinger, M. Andrulis et al., Prognostic impact of tumour-infiltrating immune cells on biliary tract cancer, British journal of cancer, vol.109, pp.2665-2674, 2013.

R. Goswami, R. Jabeen, R. Yagi, D. Pham, J. Zhu et al., STAT6-dependent regulation of Th9 development, Journal of immunology, vol.188, pp.968-975, 2012.

R. Goswami and M. H. Kaplan, Gcn5 is required for PU.1-dependent IL-9 induction in Th9 cells, Journal of immunology, vol.189, pp.3026-3033, 2012.

A. B. Gottlieb, R. T. Matheson, A. Menter, C. L. Leonardi, R. M. Day et al., Efficacy, tolerability, and pharmacodynamics of apremilast in recalcitrant plaque psoriasis: a phase II open-label study, Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD, vol.12, pp.888-897, 2013.

B. Gran, G. X. Zhang, S. Yu, J. Li, X. H. Chen et al., IL12p35-deficient mice are susceptible to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: evidence for redundancy in the IL-12 system in the induction of central nervous system autoimmune demyelination, Journal of immunology, vol.169, pp.7104-7110, 2002.

V. Groh, J. Wu, C. Yee, and T. Spies, Tumour-derived soluble MIC ligands impair expression of NKG2D and T-cell activation, Nature, vol.419, pp.734-738, 2002.

C. Gu-trantien, S. Loi, S. Garaud, C. Equeter, M. Libin et al., CD4(+) follicular helper T cell infiltration predicts breast cancer survival, The Journal of clinical investigation, vol.123, pp.2873-2892, 2013.

L. Guery and S. Hugues, Th17 Cell Plasticity and Functions in Cancer Immunity. BioMed research international 2015, p.314620, 2015.

M. Hahne, D. Rimoldi, M. Schroter, P. Romero, M. Schreier et al., Melanoma cell expression of Fas(Apo-1/CD95) ligand: implications for tumor immune escape, Science, vol.274, pp.1363-1366, 1996.

D. Hanahan and R. A. Weinberg, The hallmarks of cancer, Cell, vol.100, pp.57-70, 2000.

D. Hanahan and R. A. Weinberg, Hallmarks of cancer: the next generation, Cell, vol.144, pp.646-674, 2011.

L. E. Harrington, R. D. Hatton, P. R. Mangan, H. Turner, T. L. Murphy et al., Interleukin 17-producing CD4+ effector T cells develop via a lineage distinct from the T helper type 1 and 2 lineages, Nature immunology, vol.6, pp.1123-1132, 2005.

T. Hayashi, K. Imai, Y. Morishita, I. Hayashi, Y. Kusunoki et al., Identification of the NKG2D haplotypes associated with natural cytotoxic activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes and cancer immunosurveillance, Cancer research, vol.66, pp.563-570, 2006.

C. Heidelberger, Chemical carcinogenesis. Annual review of biochemistry 44, pp.79-121, 1975.

S. Hinz, A. Trauzold, L. Boenicke, C. Sandberg, S. Beckmann et al., Bcl-XL protects pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells against CD95-and TRAILreceptor-mediated apoptosis, Oncogene, vol.19, pp.5477-5486, 2000.

K. Hirahara, K. Ghoreschi, A. Laurence, X. P. Yang, Y. Kanno et al., Signal transduction pathways and transcriptional regulation in Th17 cell differentiation, Cytokine & growth factor reviews, vol.21, pp.425-434, 2010.

N. Hiraoka, K. Onozato, T. Kosuge, and S. Hirohashi, Prevalence of FOXP3+ regulatory T cells increases during the progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and its premalignant lesions, Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, vol.12, pp.5423-5434, 2006.

S. Holdenrieder, P. Stieber, A. Peterfi, D. Nagel, A. Steinle et al., Soluble MICA in malignant diseases, International journal of cancer Journal international du cancer, vol.118, pp.684-687, 2006.

B. Huang, P. Y. Pan, Q. Li, A. I. Sato, D. E. Levy et al., Gr-1+CD115+ immature myeloid suppressor cells mediate the development of tumor-induced T regulatory cells and T-cell anergy in tumor-bearing host, Cancer research, vol.66, pp.1123-1131, 2006.

C. T. Huang, C. J. Workman, D. Flies, X. Pan, A. L. Marson et al., Role of LAG-3 in regulatory T cells, Immunity, vol.21, pp.503-513, 2004.

M. Ignatiadis, S. K. Singhal, C. Desmedt, B. Haibe-kains, C. Criscitiello et al., Gene modules and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer subtypes: a pooled analysis, Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, vol.30, 1996.

T. Iida, M. Iwahashi, M. Katsuda, K. Ishida, M. Nakamori et al., Tumor-infiltrating CD4+ Th17 cells produce IL-17 in tumor microenvironment and promote tumor progression in human gastric cancer, Oncology reports, vol.25, pp.1271-1277, 2011.

S. Ikehara, R. N. Pahwa, G. Fernandes, C. T. Hansen, and R. A. Good, Functional T cells in athymic nude mice, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.81, pp.886-888, 1984.

Y. Issa-nummer, S. Darb-esfahani, S. Loibl, G. Kunz, V. Nekljudova et al., Prospective validation of immunological infiltrate for prediction of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in HER2-negative breast cancer--a substudy of the neoadjuvant GeparQuinto trial, PloS one, vol.8, p.79775, 2013.

I. I. Ivanov, B. S. Mckenzie, L. Zhou, C. E. Tadokoro, A. Lepelley et al., The orphan nuclear receptor RORgammat directs the differentiation program of proinflammatory IL-17+ T helper cells, Cell, vol.126, pp.1121-1133, 2006.

Y. Iwakura and H. Ishigame, The IL-23/IL-17 axis in inflammation, The Journal of clinical investigation, vol.116, pp.1218-1222, 2006.

R. Jabeen, R. Goswami, O. Awe, A. Kulkarni, E. T. Nguyen et al., Th9 cell development requires a BATF-regulated transcriptional network, The Journal of clinical investigation, vol.123, pp.4641-4653, 2013.

A. Jager, V. Dardalhon, R. A. Sobel, E. Bettelli, and V. K. Kuchroo, Th1, Th17, and Th9 effector cells induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis with different pathological phenotypes, Journal of immunology, vol.183, pp.7169-7177, 2009.

E. Jager, M. Ringhoffer, J. Karbach, M. Arand, F. Oesch et al., Inverse relationship of melanocyte differentiation antigen expression in melanoma tissues and CD8+ cytotoxic-T-cell responses: evidence for immunoselection of antigen-loss variants in vivo, International journal of cancer Journal international du cancer, vol.66, pp.470-476, 1996.

J. R. Jass, Lymphocytic infiltration and survival in rectal cancer, Journal of clinical pathology, vol.39, pp.585-589, 1986.

R. J. Johnston, A. C. Poholek, D. Ditoro, I. Yusuf, D. Eto et al., Bcl6 and Blimp-1 are reciprocal and antagonistic regulators of T follicular helper cell differentiation, Science, vol.325, pp.1006-1010, 2009.

D. H. Kaplan, V. Shankaran, A. S. Dighe, E. Stockert, M. Aguet et al., Demonstration of an interferon gamma-dependent tumor surveillance system in immunocompetent mice, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.95, pp.7556-7561, 1998.

M. H. Kaplan, M. M. Hufford, and M. R. Olson, The development and in vivo function of T helper 9 cells, Nature reviews Immunology, vol.15, pp.295-307, 2015.

E. E. Kara, I. Comerford, C. R. Bastow, K. A. Fenix, W. Litchfield et al., Distinct chemokine receptor axes regulate Th9 cell trafficking to allergic and autoimmune inflammatory sites, Journal of immunology, vol.191, pp.1110-1117, 2013.

V. Karja, S. Aaltomaa, P. Lipponen, T. Isotalo, M. Talja et al., Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes: A prognostic factor of PSA-free survival in patients with local prostate carcinoma treated by radical prostatectomy, Anticancer research, vol.25, pp.4435-4438, 2005.

T. G. Karrison, D. J. Ferguson, and P. Meier, Dormancy of mammary carcinoma after mastectomy, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol.91, pp.80-85, 1999.

B. L. Kasiske, J. J. Snyder, D. T. Gilbertson, W. , and C. , Cancer after kidney transplantation in the United States, American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons, vol.4, pp.905-913, 2004.

T. Kataoka, M. Schroter, M. Hahne, P. Schneider, M. Irmler et al., FLIP prevents apoptosis induced by death receptors but not by perforin/granzyme B, chemotherapeutic drugs, and gamma irradiation, Journal of immunology, vol.161, pp.3936-3942, 1998.

R. Kennedy and E. Celis, Multiple roles for CD4+ T cells in anti-tumor immune responses, Immunological reviews, vol.222, pp.129-144, 2008.

H. T. Khong, Q. J. Wang, and S. A. Rosenberg, Identification of multiple antigens recognized by tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes from a single patient: tumor escape by antigen loss and loss of MHC expression, Journal of immunotherapy, vol.27, pp.184-190, 2004.

I. K. Kim, B. S. Kim, C. H. Koh, J. W. Seok, J. S. Park et al., Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-related protein co-stimulation facilitates tumor regression by inducing IL-9-producing helper T cells, Nature medicine, vol.21, pp.1010-1017, 2015.

J. S. Kim, T. Sklarz, L. B. Banks, M. Gohil, A. T. Waickman et al., Natural and inducible TH17 cells are regulated differently by Akt and mTOR pathways, Nature immunology, vol.14, pp.611-618, 2013.

M. Kleinewietfeld, A. Manzel, J. Titze, H. Kvakan, N. Yosef et al., Sodium chloride drives autoimmune disease by the induction of pathogenic TH17 cells, Nature, vol.496, pp.518-522, 2013.

H. M. Kluger, C. R. Zito, M. L. Barr, M. K. Baine, V. L. Chiang et al., Characterization of PD-L1 Expression and Associated T-cell Infiltrates in Metastatic Melanoma Samples from Variable Anatomic Sites, Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, vol.21, pp.3052-3060, 2015.

C. M. Koebel, W. Vermi, J. B. Swann, N. Zerafa, S. J. Rodig et al., Adaptive immunity maintains occult cancer in an equilibrium state, Nature, vol.450, pp.903-907, 2007.

S. Kong, M. W. Mcburney, and D. Fang, Sirtuin 1 in immune regulation and autoimmunity, Immunology and cell biology, vol.90, pp.6-13, 2012.

G. Konjevic, S. Radenkovic, T. Srdic, V. Jurisic, L. Stamatovic et al., Association of decreased NK cell activity and IFNgamma expression with pSTAT dysregulation in breast cancer patients, Journal of BUON : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology, vol.16, pp.219-226, 2011.

T. Kopp, E. Riedl, C. Bangert, E. P. Bowman, E. Greisenegger et al., Clinical improvement in psoriasis with specific targeting of interleukin-23, Nature, vol.521, pp.222-226, 2015.

P. Korkolopoulou, L. Kaklamanis, F. Pezzella, A. L. Harris, and K. C. Gatter, Loss of antigenpresenting molecules (MHC class I and TAP-1) in lung cancer, British journal of cancer, vol.73, pp.148-153, 1996.

T. Korn, E. Bettelli, M. Oukka, and V. K. Kuchroo, IL-17 and Th17 Cells, Annual review of immunology, vol.27, pp.485-517, 2009.

V. N. Kristensen, C. J. Vaske, J. Ursini-siegel, P. Van-loo, S. H. Nordgard et al., Integrated molecular profiles of invasive breast tumors and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) reveal differential vascular and interleukin signaling, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.109, pp.2802-2807, 2012.

J. Krueger, J. D. Clark, M. Suarez-farinas, J. Fuentes-duculan, I. Cueto et al., Tofacitinib attenuates pathologic immune pathways in patients with psoriasis: A randomized phase 2 study, The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, vol.137, pp.1079-1090, 2016.

I. Kryczek, S. Wei, W. Szeliga, L. Vatan, and W. Zou, Endogenous IL-17 contributes to reduced tumor growth and metastasis, Blood, vol.114, pp.357-359, 2009.

T. Kusuda, K. Shigemasa, K. Arihiro, T. Fujii, N. Nagai et al., Relative expression levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokine mRNA are independent prognostic factors in patients with ovarian cancer, Oncology reports, vol.13, pp.1153-1158, 2005.

J. V. Lacey, . Jr, A. R. Kreimer, S. S. Buys, P. M. Marcus et al., Breast cancer epidemiology according to recognized breast cancer risk factors in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial Cohort, BMC cancer, vol.9, p.84, 2009.

S. Ladoire, F. Martin, and F. Ghiringhelli, Prognostic role of FOXP3+ regulatory T cells infiltrating human carcinomas: the paradox of colorectal cancer, Cancer immunology, immunotherapy : CII, vol.60, pp.909-918, 2011.

S. Ladoire, G. Mignot, S. Dabakuyo, L. Arnould, L. Apetoh et al., In situ immune response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer predicts survival, The Journal of pathology, vol.224, pp.389-400, 2011.

R. G. Langley, B. E. Elewski, M. Lebwohl, K. Reich, C. E. Griffiths et al., Secukinumab in plaque psoriasis--results of two phase 3 trials, The New England journal of medicine, vol.371, pp.326-338, 2014.

C. L. Langrish, Y. Chen, W. M. Blumenschein, J. Mattson, B. Basham et al., IL-23 drives a pathogenic T cell population that induces autoimmune inflammation, The Journal of experimental medicine, vol.201, pp.233-240, 2005.

N. Leffers, M. J. Gooden, R. A. De-jong, B. N. Hoogeboom, K. A. Hoor et al., Prognostic significance of tumor-infiltrating T-lymphocytes in primary and metastatic lesions of advanced stage ovarian cancer, Cancer immunology, immunotherapy : CII, vol.58, pp.449-459, 2009.

B. D. Lehmann, B. Jovanovic, X. Chen, M. V. Estrada, K. N. Johnson et al., Refinement of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes: Implications for Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Selection, PloS one, vol.11, 2016.

R. M. Lemoli, A. Fortuna, A. Tafuri, A. Grande, M. Amabile et al., Interleukin-9 in human myeloid leukemia cells, Leukemia & lymphoma, vol.26, pp.563-573, 1997.

W. J. Leonard and R. Spolski, Interleukin-21: a modulator of lymphoid proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation, Nature reviews Immunology, vol.5, pp.688-698, 2005.

H. Li, Y. Han, Q. Guo, M. Zhang, and X. Cao, Cancer-expanded myeloid-derived suppressor cells induce anergy of NK cells through membrane-bound TGF-beta 1, Journal of immunology, vol.182, pp.240-249, 2009.

P. Li, R. Spolski, W. Liao, L. Wang, T. L. Murphy et al., BATF-JUN is critical for IRF4-mediated transcription in T cells, Nature, vol.490, pp.543-546, 2012.

Z. Li, J. Jiang, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, M. Xiao et al., Endogenous interleukin-4 promotes tumor development by increasing tumor cell resistance to apoptosis, Cancer research, vol.68, pp.8687-8694, 2008.

S. C. Liang, X. Y. Tan, D. P. Luxenberg, R. Karim, K. Dunussi-joannopoulos et al., Interleukin (IL)-22 and IL-17 are coexpressed by Th17 cells and cooperatively enhance expression of antimicrobial peptides, The Journal of experimental medicine, vol.203, pp.2271-2279, 2006.

W. Liao, R. Spolski, P. Li, N. Du, E. E. West et al., Opposing actions of IL-2 and IL-21 on Th9 differentiation correlate with their differential regulation of BCL6 expression, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.111, pp.3508-3513, 2014.

H. W. Lim, S. G. Kang, J. K. Ryu, B. Schilling, M. Fei et al., SIRT1 deacetylates RORgammat and enhances Th17 cell generation, The Journal of experimental medicine, vol.212, p.973, 2015.

E. Limagne, R. Euvrard, M. Thibaudin, C. Rebe, V. Derangere et al., Accumulation of MDSC and Th17 Cells in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Predicts the Efficacy of a FOLFOX-Bevacizumab Drug Treatment Regimen, Cancer research, vol.76, pp.5241-5252, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01413261

X. Liu, X. Chen, B. Zhong, A. Wang, X. Wang et al., Transcription factor achaete-scute homologue 2 initiates follicular T-helper-cell development, Nature, vol.507, pp.513-518, 2014.

M. Lohoff, H. W. Mittrucker, S. Prechtl, S. Bischof, F. Sommer et al., Dysregulated T helper cell differentiation in the absence of interferon regulatory factor 4, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.99, pp.11808-11812, 2002.

S. Loi, S. Michiels, R. Salgado, N. Sirtaine, V. Jose et al., Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes are prognostic in triple negative breast cancer and predictive for trastuzumab benefit in early breast cancer: results from the FinHER trial, Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / ESMO, vol.25, pp.1544-1550, 2014.

S. Loi, N. Sirtaine, F. Piette, R. Salgado, G. Viale et al., Prognostic and predictive value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in a phase III randomized adjuvant breast cancer trial in node-positive breast cancer comparing the addition of docetaxel to doxorubicin with doxorubicin-based chemotherapy: BIG 02-98, Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, vol.31, pp.860-867, 2013.

M. Longphre, D. Li, M. Gallup, E. Drori, C. L. Ordonez et al., Allergen-induced IL-9 directly stimulates mucin transcription in respiratory epithelial cells, The Journal of clinical investigation, vol.104, pp.1375-1382, 1999.

Y. Lu, S. Hong, H. Li, J. Park, B. Hong et al., Th9 cells promote antitumor immune responses in vivo, The Journal of clinical investigation, vol.122, pp.4160-4171, 2012.

S. Luen, B. Virassamy, P. Savas, R. Salgado, and S. Loi, The genomic landscape of breast cancer and its interaction with host immunity, Breast, vol.29, pp.241-250, 2016.

L. Lv, K. Pan, X. D. Li, K. L. She, J. J. Zhao et al., The accumulation and prognosis value of tumor infiltrating IL-17 producing cells in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, PloS one, vol.6, p.18219, 2011.

L. Ma, H. B. Xue, X. H. Guan, C. M. Shu, J. H. Zhang et al., Possible pathogenic role of T helper type 9 cells and interleukin (IL)-9 in atopic dermatitis, Clinical and experimental immunology, vol.175, pp.25-31, 2014.

R. M. Mackie, R. Reid, J. , and B. , Fatal melanoma transferred in a donated kidney 16 years after melanoma surgery, The New England journal of medicine, vol.348, pp.567-568, 2003.

S. M. Mahmoud, A. H. Lee, E. C. Paish, R. D. Macmillan, I. O. Ellis et al., The prognostic significance of B lymphocytes in invasive carcinoma of the breast, Breast cancer research and treatment, vol.132, pp.545-553, 2012.

S. M. Mahmoud, A. H. Lee, E. C. Paish, R. D. Macmillan, I. O. Ellis et al., Tumourinfiltrating macrophages and clinical outcome in breast cancer, Journal of clinical pathology, vol.65, pp.159-163, 2012.

S. M. Mahmoud, E. C. Paish, D. G. Powe, R. D. Macmillan, M. J. Grainge et al., Tumor-infiltrating CD8+ lymphocytes predict clinical outcome in breast cancer, Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, vol.29, pp.1949-1955, 2011.

S. M. Mahmoud, E. C. Paish, D. G. Powe, R. D. Macmillan, A. H. Lee et al., An evaluation of the clinical significance of FOXP3+ infiltrating cells in human breast cancer, Breast cancer research and treatment, vol.127, pp.99-108, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00594478

J. R. Maleckar and L. A. Sherman, The composition of the T cell receptor repertoire in nude mice, Journal of immunology, vol.138, pp.3873-3876, 1987.

E. Mamessier, A. Sylvain, M. L. Thibult, G. Houvenaeghel, J. Jacquemier et al., Human breast cancer cells enhance self tolerance by promoting evasion from NK cell antitumor immunity, The Journal of clinical investigation, vol.121, pp.3609-3622, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01765654

A. Mantovani, P. Allavena, A. Sica, and F. Balkwill, Cancer-related inflammation, Nature, vol.454, pp.436-444, 2008.

A. Mantovani, S. Sozzani, M. Locati, P. Allavena, and A. Sica, Macrophage polarization: tumor-associated macrophages as a paradigm for polarized M2 mononuclear phagocytes, Trends in immunology, vol.23, pp.549-555, 2002.

J. C. Marie, J. J. Letterio, M. Gavin, and A. Y. Rudensky, TGF-beta1 maintains suppressor function and Foxp3 expression in CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells, The Journal of experimental medicine, vol.201, pp.1061-1067, 2005.

A. Marshak-rothstein, Toll-like receptors in systemic autoimmune disease, Nature reviews Immunology, vol.6, pp.823-835, 2006.

A. Marshak-rothstein and I. R. Rifkin, Immunologically active autoantigens: the role of tolllike receptors in the development of chronic inflammatory disease, Annual review of immunology, vol.25, pp.419-441, 2007.

C. Marth, H. Fiegl, A. G. Zeimet, E. Muller-holzner, M. Deibl et al., Interferon-gamma expression is an independent prognostic factor in ovarian cancer, American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, vol.191, pp.1598-1605, 2004.

N. Martin-orozco, P. Muranski, Y. Chung, X. O. Yang, T. Yamazaki et al., T helper 17 cells promote cytotoxic T cell activation in tumor immunity, Immunity, vol.31, pp.787-798, 2009.

F. Martin, L. Apetoh, and F. Ghiringhelli, Controversies on the role of Th17 in cancer: a TGFbeta-dependent immunosuppressive activity? Trends in molecular medicine, vol.18, pp.742-749, 2012.

L. Martinet, I. Garrido, T. Filleron, S. Le-guellec, E. Bellard et al., Human solid tumors contain high endothelial venules: association with T-and B-lymphocyte infiltration and favorable prognosis in breast cancer, Cancer research, vol.71, pp.5678-5687, 2011.

P. Matzinger, Tolerance, danger, and the extended family, Annual review of immunology, vol.12, pp.991-1045, 1994.

M. J. Mcgeachy, K. S. Bak-jensen, Y. Chen, C. M. Tato, W. Blumenschein et al., TGF-beta and IL-6 drive the production of IL-17 and IL-10 by T cells and restrain T(H)-17 cell-mediated pathology, Nature immunology, vol.8, pp.1390-1397, 2007.

P. J. Mease, M. C. Genovese, M. W. Greenwald, C. T. Ritchlin, A. D. Beaulieu et al., Brodalumab, an anti-IL17RA monoclonal antibody, in psoriatic arthritis, The New England journal of medicine, vol.370, pp.2295-2306, 2014.

J. P. Medema, J. De-jong, L. T. Peltenburg, E. M. Verdegaal, A. Gorter et al., Blockade of the granzyme B/perforin pathway through overexpression of the serine protease inhibitor PI-9/SPI-6 constitutes a mechanism for immune escape by tumors, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.98, pp.11515-11520, 2001.

C. Medrek, F. Ponten, K. Jirstrom, and K. Leandersson, The presence of tumor associated macrophages in tumor stroma as a prognostic marker for breast cancer patients, BMC cancer, vol.12, p.306, 2012.

S. Meng, D. Tripathy, E. P. Frenkel, S. Shete, E. Z. Naftalis et al., Circulating tumor cells in patients with breast cancer dormancy, Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, vol.10, pp.8152-8162, 2004.

A. Merlo, P. Casalini, M. L. Carcangiu, C. Malventano, T. Triulzi et al., FOXP3 expression and overall survival in breast cancer, Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, vol.27, pp.1746-1752, 2009.

M. Mesquida, A. Leszczynska, V. Llorenc, A. , and A. , Interleukin-6 blockade in ocular inflammatory diseases, Clinical and experimental immunology, vol.176, pp.301-309, 2014.

S. Michel, A. Benner, M. Tariverdian, N. Wentzensen, P. Hoefler et al., High density of FOXP3-positive T cells infiltrating colorectal cancers with microsatellite instability, British journal of cancer, vol.99, pp.1867-1873, 2008.

M. C. Mihm, . Jr, C. G. Clemente, and N. Cascinelli, Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in lymph node melanoma metastases: a histopathologic prognostic indicator and an expression of local immune response. Laboratory investigation, vol.74, pp.43-47, 1996.

K. Milne, M. Kobel, S. E. Kalloger, R. O. Barnes, D. Gao et al., Systematic analysis of immune infiltrates in high-grade serous ovarian cancer reveals CD20, FoxP3 and TIA-1 as positive prognostic factors, PloS one, vol.4, p.6412, 2009.

C. Miracco, V. Mourmouras, M. Biagioli, P. Rubegni, S. Mannucci et al., Utility of tumour-infiltrating CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cell evaluation in predicting local recurrence in vertical growth phase cutaneous melanoma, Oncology reports, vol.18, pp.1115-1122, 2007.

D. Mittal, M. M. Gubin, R. D. Schreiber, and M. J. Smyth, New insights into cancer immunoediting and its three component phases--elimination, equilibrium and escape, Current opinion in immunology, vol.27, pp.16-25, 2014.

M. Miyashita, H. Sasano, K. Tamaki, M. Chan, H. Hirakawa et al., Tumor-infiltrating CD8+ and FOXP3+ lymphocytes in triplenegative breast cancer: its correlation with pathological complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, Breast cancer research and treatment, vol.148, pp.525-534, 2014.

J. W. Molling, W. Kolgen, . Van-der, H. J. Vliet, M. F. Boomsma et al., Peripheral blood IFN-gamma-secreting Valpha24+Vbeta11+ NKT cell numbers are decreased in cancer patients independent of tumor type or tumor load, International journal of cancer Journal international du cancer, vol.116, pp.87-93, 2005.

I. Monteleone, A. Rizzo, M. Sarra, G. Sica, P. Sileri et al., Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-induced signals up-regulate IL-22 production and inhibit inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, Gastroenterology, vol.141, p.231, 2011.

A. Moretta, Natural killer cells and dendritic cells: rendezvous in abused tissues, Nature reviews Immunology, vol.2, pp.957-964, 2002.

E. A. Moseman, X. Liang, A. J. Dawson, A. Panoskaltsis-mortari, A. M. Krieg et al., Human plasmacytoid dendritic cells activated by CpG oligodeoxynucleotides induce the generation of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells, Journal of immunology, vol.173, pp.4433-4442, 2004.

T. R. Mosmann and R. L. Coffman, Two types of mouse helper T-cell clone Implications for immune regulation, Immunology today, vol.8, pp.223-227, 1987.

D. Mougiakakos, C. C. Johansson, E. Trocme, C. All-ericsson, M. A. Economou et al., Intratumoral forkhead box P3-positive regulatory T cells predict poor survival in cyclooxygenase-2-positive uveal melanoma, Cancer, vol.116, pp.2224-2233, 2010.

R. Mukasa, A. Balasubramani, Y. K. Lee, S. K. Whitley, B. T. Weaver et al., Epigenetic instability of cytokine and transcription factor gene loci underlies plasticity of the T helper 17 cell lineage, Immunity, vol.32, pp.616-627, 2010.

N. Muller-hermelink, H. Braumuller, B. Pichler, T. Wieder, R. Mailhammer et al., TNFR1 signaling and IFN-gamma signaling determine whether T cells induce tumor dormancy or promote multistage carcinogenesis, Cancer cell, vol.13, pp.507-518, 2008.

K. M. Murphy and S. L. Reiner, The lineage decisions of helper T cells, Nature reviews Immunology, vol.2, pp.933-944, 2002.

G. Murugaiyan, V. Beynon, A. Pires-da-cunha, N. Joller, and H. L. Weiner, IFN-gamma limits Th9-mediated autoimmune inflammation through dendritic cell modulation of IL-27, Journal of immunology, vol.189, pp.5277-5283, 2012.

J. M. Nabholtz, C. Abrial, M. A. Mouret-reynier, M. M. Dauplat, B. Weber et al., Multicentric neoadjuvant phase II study of panitumumab combined with an anthracycline/taxane-based chemotherapy in operable triplenegative breast cancer: identification of biologically defined signatures predicting treatment impact, Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / ESMO, vol.25, pp.1570-1577, 2014.

J. M. Nabholtz, N. Chalabi, N. Radosevic-robin, M. M. Dauplat, M. A. Mouret-reynier et al., Multicentric neoadjuvant pilot Phase II study of cetuximab combined with docetaxel in operable triple negative breast cancer, International journal of cancer Journal international du cancer, vol.138, pp.2274-2280, 2016.

S. Nagaraj, K. Gupta, V. Pisarev, L. Kinarsky, S. Sherman et al., Altered recognition of antigen is a mechanism of CD8+ T cell tolerance in cancer, Nature medicine, vol.13, pp.828-835, 2007.

Y. Nakakubo, M. Miyamoto, Y. Cho, Y. Hida, T. Oshikiri et al., Clinical significance of immune cell infiltration within gallbladder cancer, British journal of cancer, vol.89, pp.1736-1742, 2003.

O. Nakano, M. Sato, Y. Naito, K. Suzuki, S. Orikasa et al., Proliferative activity of intratumoral CD8(+) T-lymphocytes as a prognostic factor in human renal cell carcinoma: clinicopathologic demonstration of antitumor immunity, Cancer research, vol.61, pp.5132-5136, 2001.

N. Nalleweg, M. T. Chiriac, E. Podstawa, C. Lehmann, T. T. Rau et al., IL-9 and its receptor are predominantly involved in the pathogenesis of UC, Gut, vol.64, pp.743-755, 2015.

R. Nanda, L. Q. Chow, E. C. Dees, R. Berger, S. Gupta et al., Pembrolizumab in Patients With Advanced Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Phase Ib KEYNOTE-012 Study, Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, vol.34, pp.2460-2467, 2016.

Y. Nie, D. M. Erion, Z. Yuan, M. Dietrich, G. I. Shulman et al., STAT3 inhibition of gluconeogenesis is downregulated by SirT1, Nature cell biology, vol.11, pp.492-500, 2009.

E. C. Nowak, C. T. Weaver, H. Turner, S. Begum-haque, B. Becher et al., IL-9 as a mediator of Th17-driven inflammatory disease, The Journal of experimental medicine, vol.206, pp.1653-1660, 2009.

S. Nunez, J. J. Saez, D. Fernandez, F. Flores-santibanez, K. Alvarez et al., T helper type 17 cells contribute to anti-tumour immunity and promote the recruitment of T helper type 1 cells to the tumour, Immunology, vol.139, pp.61-71, 2013.

R. I. Nurieva, Y. Chung, G. J. Martinez, X. O. Yang, S. Tanaka et al., Bcl6 mediates the development of T follicular helper cells, Science, vol.325, pp.1001-1005, 2009.

C. K. Oh, R. Leigh, K. K. Mclaurin, K. Kim, M. Hultquist et al., A randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the effect of an anti-interleukin-9 monoclonal antibody in adults with uncontrolled asthma, p.93, 2013.

L. J. Old and E. A. Boyse, Immunology of Experimental Tumors. Annual review of medicine 15, pp.167-186, 1964.

M. Ono, H. Tsuda, C. Shimizu, S. Yamamoto, T. Shibata et al., Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are correlated with response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer, Breast cancer research and treatment, vol.132, pp.793-805, 2012.

B. Oppmann, R. Lesley, B. Blom, J. C. Timans, Y. Xu et al., Novel p19 protein engages IL-12p40 to form a cytokine, IL-23, with biological activities similar as well as distinct from IL-12, Immunity, vol.13, pp.715-725, 2000.

W. Ouyang, J. K. Kolls, and Y. Zheng, The biological functions of T helper 17 cell effector cytokines in inflammation, Immunity, vol.28, pp.454-467, 2008.

P. Pandiyan, L. Zheng, S. Ishihara, J. Reed, and M. J. Lenardo, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells induce cytokine deprivation-mediated apoptosis of effector CD4+ T cells, Nature immunology, vol.8, pp.1353-1362, 2007.

J. W. Pape, B. Liautaud, F. Thomas, J. R. Mathurin, M. M. St-amand et al., Characteristics of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Haiti, The New England journal of medicine, vol.309, pp.945-950, 1983.

D. Pardoll, Does the immune system see tumors as foreign or self?, Annual review of immunology, vol.21, pp.807-839, 2003.

H. Park, Z. Li, X. O. Yang, S. H. Chang, R. Nurieva et al., A distinct lineage of CD4 T cells regulates tissue inflammation by producing interleukin 17, Nature immunology, vol.6, pp.1133-1141, 2005.

J. Park, H. Li, M. Zhang, Y. Lu, B. Hong et al., Murine Th9 cells promote the survival of myeloid dendritic cells in cancer immunotherapy, Cancer immunology, immunotherapy : CII, vol.63, pp.835-845, 2014.

J. M. Parker, C. K. Oh, C. Laforce, S. D. Miller, D. S. Pearlman et al., Safety profile and clinical activity of multiple subcutaneous doses of MEDI-528, a humanized anti-interleukin-9 monoclonal antibody, two randomized phase 2a studies in subjects with asthma. BMC pulmonary medicine 11, p.14, 2011.

T. Parrot, M. Allard, R. Oger, H. Benlalam, D. Raingeard-de-la-bletiere et al., IL-9 promotes the survival and function of human melanoma-infiltrating CD4(+) CD8(+) double-positive T cells, European journal of immunology, vol.46, pp.1770-1782, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-01319366

I. Penn, Tumors of the immunocompromised patient, Annual review of medicine, vol.39, pp.63-73, 1988.

E. A. Perez, K. V. Ballman, K. S. Tenner, E. A. Thompson, S. S. Badve et al., Association of Stromal Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes With Recurrence-Free Survival in the N9831 Adjuvant Trial in Patients With Early-Stage HER2-Positive Breast Cancer, JAMA oncology, vol.2, pp.56-64, 2016.

C. M. Perou, T. Sorlie, M. B. Eisen, M. Van-de-rijn, S. S. Jeffrey et al., Molecular portraits of human breast tumours, Nature, vol.406, pp.747-752, 2000.

N. A. Pestov, N. S. Gerasimova, O. I. Kulaeva, and V. M. Studitsky, Structure of transcribed chromatin is a sensor of DNA damage, 2015.

R. P. Petersen, M. J. Campa, J. Sperlazza, D. Conlon, M. B. Joshi et al., Tumor infiltrating Foxp3+ regulatory T-cells are associated with recurrence in pathologic stage I NSCLC patients, Cancer, vol.107, pp.2866-2872, 2006.

J. E. Pope, B. Haraoui, E. Rampakakis, E. Psaradellis, C. Thorne et al., Treating to a target in established active rheumatoid arthritis patients receiving a tumor necrosis factor inhibitor: results from a real-world cluster-randomized adalimumab trial, Arthritis care & research, vol.65, pp.1401-1409, 2013.

R. H. Prabhala, D. Pelluru, M. Fulciniti, H. K. Prabhala, P. Nanjappa et al., Elevated IL-17 produced by TH17 cells promotes myeloma cell growth and inhibits immune function in multiple myeloma, Blood, vol.115, pp.5385-5392, 2010.

A. Prat, G. Bianchini, M. Thomas, A. Belousov, M. C. Cheang et al., Research-based PAM50 subtype predictor identifies higher responses and improved survival outcomes in HER2-positive breast cancer in the NOAH study, Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, vol.20, pp.511-521, 2014.

R. T. Prehn, Perspectives on oncogenesis: does immunity stimulate or inhibit neoplasia, Journal of the Reticuloendothelial Society, vol.10, pp.1-16, 1971.

R. Purwar, C. Schlapbach, S. Xiao, H. S. Kang, W. Elyaman et al., Robust tumor immunity to melanoma mediated by interleukin-9-producing T cells, Nature medicine, vol.18, pp.1248-1253, 2012.

S. Pusceddu, N. Prinzi, G. Lo-russo, D. Femia, M. Milione et al., Rationale and protocol of MetNET-2 trial: Lanreotide Autogel plus metformin in advanced gastrointestinal or lung neuroendocrine tumors, Future oncology, 2017.

L. Raffaghello, C. Lee, F. M. Safdie, M. Wei, F. Madia et al., , 2008.

, Starvation-dependent differential stress resistance protects normal but not cancer cells against highdose chemotherapy, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105, pp.8215-8220

L. Raffaghello, F. Safdie, G. Bianchi, T. Dorff, L. Fontana et al., Fasting and differential chemotherapy protection in patients, Cell cycle, vol.9, pp.4474-4476, 2010.

E. A. Rakha, M. Aleskandarany, M. E. El-sayed, R. W. Blamey, C. W. Elston et al., The prognostic significance of inflammation and medullary histological type in invasive carcinoma of the breast, European journal of cancer, vol.45, pp.1780-1787, 2009.

A. Ramming, D. Druzd, J. Leipe, H. Schulze-koops, and A. Skapenko, Maturation-related histone modifications in the PU.1 promoter regulate Th9-cell development, Blood, vol.119, pp.4665-4674, 2012.

I. Ray-coquard, C. Cropet, M. Van-glabbeke, C. Sebban, A. Le-cesne et al., Lymphopenia as a prognostic factor for overall survival in advanced carcinomas, sarcomas, and lymphomas, Cancer research, vol.69, pp.5383-5391, 2009.

N. Redjimi, C. Raffin, I. Raimbaud, P. Pignon, J. Matsuzaki et al.,

, CXCR3+ T regulatory cells selectively accumulate in human ovarian carcinomas to limit type I immunity, Cancer research, vol.72, pp.4351-4360

R. Remark, M. Alifano, I. Cremer, A. Lupo, M. C. Dieu-nosjean et al., Characteristics and clinical impacts of the immune environments in colorectal and renal cell carcinoma lung metastases: influence of tumor origin, Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, vol.19, pp.4079-4091, 2013.

N. P. Restifo, F. M. Marincola, Y. Kawakami, J. Taubenberger, J. R. Yannelli et al., Loss of functional beta 2-microglobulin in metastatic melanomas from five patients receiving immunotherapy, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol.88, pp.100-108, 1996.

R. Vargas, T. Humblin, E. Vegran, F. Ghiringhelli, F. et al., TH9 cells in antitumor immunity, Seminars in immunopathology, vol.39, pp.39-46, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-01416031

N. Rubinstein, M. Alvarez, N. W. Zwirner, M. A. Toscano, J. M. Ilarregui et al., , 2004.

J. Rygaard and C. O. Povlsen, The mouse mutant nude does not develop spontaneous tumours. An argument against immunological surveillance, Acta pathologica et microbiologica Scandinavica Section B: Microbiology and immunology, vol.82, pp.99-106, 1974.

F. M. Safdie, T. Dorff, D. Quinn, L. Fontana, M. Wei et al., Fasting and cancer treatment in humans: A case series report, Aging, vol.1, pp.988-1007, 2009.

A. Saggini, S. Chimenti, and A. Chiricozzi, IL-6 as a druggable target in psoriasis: focus on pustular variants, Journal of immunology research, p.964069, 2014.

S. Sakaguchi, K. Wing, Y. Onishi, P. Prieto-martin, Y. et al., Regulatory T cells: how do they suppress immune responses?, International immunology, vol.21, pp.1105-1111, 2009.

P. Salama, M. Phillips, F. Grieu, M. Morris, N. Zeps et al., , 2009.

, Tumor-infiltrating FOXP3+ T regulatory cells show strong prognostic significance in colorectal cancer, Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, vol.27, pp.186-192

R. Salgado, C. Denkert, C. Campbell, P. Savas, P. Nuciforo et al., Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes and Associations With Pathological Complete Response and Event-Free Survival in HER2-Positive Early-Stage Breast Cancer Treated With Lapatinib and Trastuzumab: A Secondary Analysis of the NeoALTTO Trial, JAMA oncology, vol.1, pp.448-454, 2015.

R. Salgado, C. Denkert, S. Demaria, N. Sirtaine, F. Klauschen et al., The evaluation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in breast cancer: recommendations by an International TILs Working Group, Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / ESMO, vol.26, pp.259-271, 2014.

M. Salio, M. Cella, W. Vermi, F. Facchetti, M. J. Palmowski et al., Plasmacytoid dendritic cells prime IFN-gamma-secreting melanomaspecific CD8 lymphocytes and are found in primary melanoma lesions, European journal of immunology, vol.33, pp.1052-1062, 2003.

F. Sallusto, C. E. Zielinski, and A. Lanzavecchia, Human Th17 subsets, European journal of immunology, vol.42, pp.2215-2220, 2012.

E. E. Sarria, R. Mattiello, W. Yao, V. Chakr, C. J. Tiller et al., Atopy, cytokine production, and airway reactivity as predictors of pre-school asthma and airway responsiveness, Pediatric pulmonology, vol.49, pp.132-139, 2014.

P. Schaerli, K. Willimann, A. B. Lang, M. Lipp, P. Loetscher et al., CXC chemokine receptor 5 expression defines follicular homing T cells with B cell helper function, The Journal of experimental medicine, vol.192, pp.1553-1562, 2000.

P. H. Schafer, P. Chen, L. Fang, A. Wang, and R. Chopra, The pharmacodynamic impact of apremilast, an oral phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor, on circulating levels of inflammatory biomarkers in patients with psoriatic arthritis: substudy results from a phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (PALACE 1), Journal of immunology research, p.906349, 2015.

C. Schlapbach, A. Gehad, C. Yang, R. Watanabe, E. Guenova et al., Human TH9 cells are skin-tropic and have autocrine and paracrine proinflammatory capacity, Science translational medicine, vol.6, pp.219-218, 2014.

M. Schmidt, D. Bohm, C. Von-torne, E. Steiner, A. Puhl et al., The humoral immune system has a key prognostic impact in nodenegative breast cancer, Cancer research, vol.68, pp.5405-5413, 2008.

E. Schmitt, T. Germann, S. Goedert, P. Hoehn, C. Huels et al., IL-9 production of naive CD4+ T cells depends on IL-2, is synergistically enhanced by a combination of TGF-beta and IL-4, and is inhibited by IFN-gamma, Journal of immunology, vol.153, pp.3989-3996, 1994.

A. Schneeweiss, S. Chia, T. Hickish, V. Harvey, A. Eniu et al., Pertuzumab plus trastuzumab in combination with standard neoadjuvant anthracycline-containing and anthracycline-free chemotherapy regimens in patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer: a randomized phase II cardiac safety study (TRYPHAENA), Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / ESMO, vol.24, pp.2278-2284, 2013.

B. U. Schraml, K. Hildner, W. Ise, W. L. Lee, W. A. Smith et al., The AP-1 transcription factor Batf controls T(H)17 differentiation, Nature, vol.460, pp.405-409, 2009.

S. Schreck, D. Friebel, M. Buettner, L. Distel, G. Grabenbauer et al., Prognostic impact of tumour-infiltrating Th2 and regulatory T cells in classical Hodgkin lymphoma, Hematological oncology, vol.27, pp.31-39, 2009.

R. D. Schreiber, L. J. Old, and M. J. Smyth, Cancer immunoediting: integrating immunity's roles in cancer suppression and promotion, Science, vol.331, pp.1565-1570, 2011.

T. H. Schreiber and E. R. Podack, A critical analysis of the tumour immunosurveillance controversy for 3-MCA-induced sarcomas, British journal of cancer, vol.101, pp.381-386, 2009.

K. S. Sfanos, T. C. Bruno, C. H. Maris, L. Xu, C. J. Thoburn et al., Phenotypic analysis of prostate-infiltrating lymphocytes reveals TH17 and Treg skewing, Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, vol.14, pp.3254-3261, 2008.

V. Shankaran, H. Ikeda, A. T. Bruce, J. M. White, P. E. Swanson et al., IFNgamma and lymphocytes prevent primary tumour development and shape tumour immunogenicity, Nature, vol.410, pp.1107-1111, 2001.

L. Z. Shi, R. Wang, G. Huang, P. Vogel, G. Neale et al., HIF1alpha-dependent glycolytic pathway orchestrates a metabolic checkpoint for the differentiation of TH17 and Treg cells, The Journal of experimental medicine, vol.208, pp.1367-1376, 2011.

I. Shimokawara, M. Imamura, N. Yamanaka, Y. Ishii, and K. Kikuchi, Identification of lymphocyte subpopulations in human breast cancer tissue and its significance: an immunoperoxidase study with anti-human T-and B-cell sera, Cancer, vol.49, pp.1456-1464, 1982.

M. S. Shin, H. S. Kim, S. H. Lee, W. S. Park, S. Y. Kim et al., Mutations of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 1 (TRAIL-R1) and receptor 2 (TRAIL-R2) genes in metastatic breast cancers, Cancer research, vol.61, pp.4942-4946, 2001.

A. Sica, P. Larghi, A. Mancino, L. Rubino, C. Porta et al., Macrophage polarization in tumour progression, Seminars in cancer biology, vol.18, pp.349-355, 2008.

A. Sica, A. Saccani, B. Bottazzi, N. Polentarutti, A. Vecchi et al., Autocrine production of IL-10 mediates defective IL-12 production and NF-kappa B activation in tumor-associated macrophages, Journal of immunology, vol.164, pp.762-767, 2000.

A. Snyder, V. Makarov, T. Merghoub, J. Yuan, J. M. Zaretsky et al., Genetic basis for clinical response to CTLA-4 blockade in melanoma, The New England journal of medicine, vol.371, pp.2189-2199, 2014.

T. Sorlie, C. M. Perou, R. Tibshirani, T. Aas, S. Geisler et al., Gene expression patterns of breast carcinomas distinguish tumor subclasses with clinical implications, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.98, pp.10869-10874, 2001.

M. K. Srivastava, P. Sinha, V. K. Clements, P. Rodriguez, and S. Ostrand-rosenberg, Myeloidderived suppressor cells inhibit T-cell activation by depleting cystine and cysteine, Cancer research, vol.70, pp.68-77, 2010.

M. Stassen, E. Schmitt, and T. Bopp, From interleukin-9 to T helper 9 cells, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol.1247, pp.56-68, 2012.

V. Staudt, E. Bothur, M. Klein, K. Lingnau, S. Reuter et al., Interferon-regulatory factor 4 is essential for the developmental program of T helper 9 cells, Immunity, vol.33, pp.192-202, 2010.

N. Stern-ginossar, C. Gur, M. Biton, E. Horwitz, M. Elboim et al., Human microRNAs regulate stress-induced immune responses mediated by the receptor NKG2D, Nature immunology, vol.9, pp.1065-1073, 2008.

O. Stutman, Tumor development after 3-methylcholanthrene in immunologically deficient athymic-nude mice, Science, vol.183, pp.534-536, 1974.

X. Su, J. Ye, E. C. Hsueh, Y. Zhang, D. F. Hoft et al., Tumor microenvironments direct the recruitment and expansion of human Th17 cells, Journal of immunology, vol.184, pp.1630-1641, 2010.

S. J. Szabo, S. T. Kim, G. L. Costa, X. Zhang, C. G. Fathman et al., A novel transcription factor, T-bet, directs Th1 lineage commitment, Cell, vol.100, pp.655-669, 2000.

H. Takahashi, F. Feuerhake, J. L. Kutok, S. Monti, P. Dal-cin et al., FAS death domain deletions and cellular FADD-like interleukin 1beta converting enzyme inhibitory protein (long) overexpression: alternative mechanisms for deregulating the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma subtypes, Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, vol.12, pp.3265-3271, 2006.

T. Tamiya, K. Ichiyama, H. Kotani, T. Fukaya, T. Sekiya et al., Smad2/3 and IRF4 play a cooperative role in IL-9-producing T cell induction, Journal of immunology, vol.191, pp.2360-2371, 2013.

S. G. Tangye, C. S. Ma, R. Brink, and E. K. Deenick, The good, the bad and the ugly -TFH cells in human health and disease, Nature reviews Immunology, vol.13, pp.412-426, 2013.

H. Tao, Y. Mimura, K. Aoe, S. Kobayashi, H. Yamamoto et al., Prognostic potential of FOXP3 expression in non-small cell lung cancer cells combined with tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells, Lung cancer, vol.75, pp.95-101, 2012.

M. W. Teng, M. D. Vesely, H. Duret, N. Mclaughlin, J. E. Towne et al., Opposing roles for IL-23 and IL-12 in maintaining occult cancer in an equilibrium state, Cancer research, vol.72, pp.3987-3996, 2012.

M. Terabe and J. A. Berzofsky, Immunoregulatory T cells in tumor immunity, Current opinion in immunology, vol.16, pp.157-162, 2004.

M. Terabe, J. M. Park, and J. A. Berzofsky, Role of IL-13 in regulation of anti-tumor immunity and tumor growth, Cancer immunology, immunotherapy : CII, vol.53, pp.79-85, 2004.

P. Terness, T. M. Bauer, L. Rose, C. Dufter, A. Watzlik et al., Inhibition of allogeneic T cell proliferation by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-expressing dendritic cells: mediation of suppression by tryptophan metabolites, The Journal of experimental medicine, vol.196, pp.447-457, 2002.

A. E. Teschendorff, A. Miremadi, S. E. Pinder, I. O. Ellis, and C. Caldas, , 2007.

M. Thibaudin, M. Chaix, R. Boidot, F. Vegran, V. Derangere et al., Human ectonucleotidase-expressing CD25high Th17 cells accumulate in breast cancer tumors and exert immunosuppressive functions, Oncoimmunology, vol.5, p.1055444, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01438254

L. Thomas and . Hoeber-harper, cellular and humoral aspects of the hypersensitive states. Lawrence HS, pp.529-532, 1959.

S. L. Topalian, C. G. Drake, and D. M. Pardoll, Targeting the PD-1/B7-H1(PD-L1) pathway to activate anti-tumor immunity, Current opinion in immunology, vol.24, pp.207-212, 2012.

M. Tosolini, A. Kirilovsky, B. Mlecnik, T. Fredriksen, S. Mauger et al., Clinical impact of different classes of infiltrating T cytotoxic and helper cells (Th1, th2, treg, th17) in patients with colorectal cancer, Cancer research, vol.71, pp.1263-1271, 2011.

P. Tripathi, A. , and S. , Non-classical HLA-G antigen and its role in the cancer progression, Cancer investigation, vol.24, pp.178-186, 2006.

A. Tzankov, C. Meier, P. Hirschmann, P. Went, S. A. Pileri et al., Correlation of high numbers of intratumoral FOXP3+ regulatory T cells with improved survival in germinal centerlike diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma and classical Hodgkin's lymphoma, Haematologica, vol.93, pp.193-200, 2008.

H. Ubukata, G. Motohashi, T. Tabuchi, H. Nagata, S. Konishi et al., Evaluations of interferon-gamma/interleukin-4 ratio and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio as prognostic indicators in gastric cancer patients, Journal of surgical oncology, vol.102, pp.742-747, 2010.

C. Uyttenhove, L. Pilotte, I. Theate, V. Stroobant, D. Colau et al., Evidence for a tumoral immune resistance mechanism based on tryptophan degradation by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, Nature medicine, vol.9, pp.1269-1274, 2003.

W. B. Van-den-berg and P. Miossec, IL-17 as a future therapeutic target for rheumatoid arthritis, Nature reviews Rheumatology, vol.5, pp.549-553, 2009.

P. Van-der-bruggen, C. Traversari, P. Chomez, C. Lurquin, E. De-plaen et al., A gene encoding an antigen recognized by cytolytic T lymphocytes on a human melanoma, Science, vol.254, pp.1643-1647, 1991.

F. Vegran, H. Berger, R. Boidot, G. Mignot, M. Bruchard et al., The transcription factor IRF1 dictates the IL-21-dependent anticancer functions of TH9 cells, Nature immunology, vol.15, pp.758-766, 2014.

M. Veldhoen, C. Uyttenhove, J. Van-snick, H. Helmby, A. Westendorf et al., Transforming growth factor-beta 'reprograms' the differentiation of T helper 2 cells and promotes an interleukin 9-producing subset, Nature immunology, vol.9, pp.1341-1346, 2008.

M. D. Vesely, M. H. Kershaw, R. D. Schreiber, and M. J. Smyth, Natural innate and adaptive immunity to cancer, Annual review of immunology, vol.29, pp.235-271, 2011.

E. J. Villablanca, L. Raccosta, D. Zhou, R. Fontana, D. Maggioni et al., Tumor-mediated liver X receptor-alpha activation inhibits CC chemokine receptor-7 expression on dendritic cells and dampens antitumor responses, Nature medicine, vol.16, pp.98-105, 2010.

A. V. Villarino, E. Gallo, and A. K. Abbas, STAT1-activating cytokines limit Th17 responses through both T-bet-dependent and -independent mechanisms, Journal of immunology, vol.185, pp.6461-6471, 2010.

J. Vincent, G. Mignot, F. Chalmin, S. Ladoire, M. Bruchard et al., 5-Fluorouracil selectively kills tumor-associated myeloid-derived suppressor cells resulting in enhanced T cell-dependent antitumor immunity, Cancer research, vol.70, pp.3052-3061, 2010.

Y. Wada, O. Nakashima, R. Kutami, O. Yamamoto, and M. Kojiro, Clinicopathological study on hepatocellular carcinoma with lymphocytic infiltration, Hepatology, vol.27, pp.407-414, 1998.

A. Wang, D. Pan, Y. H. Lee, G. J. Martinez, X. H. Feng et al., Cutting edge: Smad2 and Smad4 regulate TGF-beta-mediated Il9 gene expression via EZH2 displacement, Journal of immunology, vol.191, pp.4908-4912, 2013.

J. Wang, C. Zhao, P. Kong, G. Bian, Z. Sun et al., Methylene blue alleviates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by modulating AMPK/SIRT1 signaling pathway and Th17/Treg immune response, Journal of neuroimmunology, vol.299, pp.45-52, 2016.

J. Wang, C. Zhao, P. Kong, H. Sun, Z. Sun et al., Treatment with NAD(+) inhibited experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by activating AMPK/SIRT1 signaling pathway and modulating Th1/Th17 immune responses in mice, International immunopharmacology, vol.39, pp.287-294, 2016.

L. Wang, T. Yi, M. Kortylewski, D. M. Pardoll, D. Zeng et al., IL-17 can promote tumor growth through an IL-6-Stat3 signaling pathway, The Journal of experimental medicine, vol.206, pp.1457-1464, 2009.

T. Wang, G. Niu, M. Kortylewski, L. Burdelya, K. Shain et al., Regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses by Stat-3 signaling in tumor cells, Nature medicine, vol.10, pp.48-54, 2004.

C. T. Weaver, R. D. Hatton, P. R. Mangan, and L. E. Harrington, IL-17 family cytokines and the expanding diversity of effector T cell lineages, Annual review of immunology, vol.25, pp.821-852, 2007.

N. R. West, S. E. Kost, S. D. Martin, K. Milne, R. J. Deleeuw et al., , 2013.

, Tumour-infiltrating FOXP3(+) lymphocytes are associated with cytotoxic immune responses and good clinical outcome in oestrogen receptor-negative breast cancer, British journal of cancer, vol.108, pp.155-162

B. White, F. Leon, W. White, R. , and G. , Two first-in-human, open-label, phase I doseescalation safety trials of MEDI-528, a monoclonal antibody against interleukin-9, healthy adult volunteers, vol.31, pp.728-740, 2009.

T. L. Whiteside, P. Schuler, and B. Schilling, Induced and natural regulatory T cells in human cancer, Expert opinion on biological therapy, vol.12, pp.1383-1397, 2012.

M. E. Winerdal, P. Marits, M. Winerdal, M. Hasan, R. Rosenblatt et al., FOXP3 and survival in urinary bladder cancer, BJU international, vol.108, pp.1672-1678, 2011.

A. M. Wolf, D. Wolf, M. Steurer, G. Gastl, E. Gunsilius et al., Increase of regulatory T cells in the peripheral blood of cancer patients, Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, vol.9, pp.606-612, 2003.

M. T. Wong, D. E. Ong, F. S. Lim, K. W. Teng, N. Mcgovern et al., A High-Dimensional Atlas of Human T Cell Diversity Reveals TissueSpecific Trafficking and Cytokine Signatures, vol.45, pp.442-456, 2016.

M. T. Wong, J. J. Ye, M. N. Alonso, A. Landrigan, R. K. Cheung et al., Regulation of human Th9 differentiation by type I interferons and IL-21, Immunology and cell biology, vol.88, pp.624-631, 2010.

S. H. Wrzesinski, Y. Y. Wan, and R. A. Flavell, Transforming growth factor-beta and the immune response: implications for anticancer therapy, Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, vol.13, pp.5262-5270, 2007.

X. Wu, M. Peng, B. Huang, H. Zhang, H. Wang et al.,

X. Xiao, S. Balasubramanian, W. Liu, X. Chu, H. Wang et al., OX40 signaling favors the induction of T(H)9 cells and airway inflammation, Nature immunology, vol.13, pp.981-990, 2012.

X. Xiao, X. Shi, Y. Fan, X. Zhang, M. Wu et al., GITR subverts Foxp3(+) Tregs to boost Th9 immunity through regulation of histone acetylation, Nature communications, vol.6, p.8266, 2015.

R. Yamaguchi, M. Tanaka, A. Yano, G. M. Tse, M. Yamaguchi et al., Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are important pathologic predictors for neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer, Human pathology, vol.43, pp.1688-1694, 2012.

X. O. Yang, B. P. Pappu, R. Nurieva, A. Akimzhanov, H. S. Kang et al., T helper 17 lineage differentiation is programmed by orphan nuclear receptors ROR alpha and ROR gamma, Immunity, vol.28, pp.29-39, 2008.

X. O. Yang, H. Zhang, B. S. Kim, X. Niu, J. Peng et al., The signaling suppressor CIS controls proallergic T cell development and allergic airway inflammation, Nature immunology, vol.14, pp.732-740, 2013.

X. P. Yang, K. Ghoreschi, S. M. Steward-tharp, J. Rodriguez-canales, J. Zhu et al., Opposing regulation of the locus encoding IL-17 through direct, reciprocal actions of STAT3 and STAT5, Nature immunology, vol.12, pp.247-254, 2011.

W. Yao, Y. Zhang, R. Jabeen, E. T. Nguyen, D. S. Wilkes et al., Interleukin-9 is required for allergic airway inflammation mediated by the cytokine TSLP, Immunity, vol.38, pp.360-372, 2013.

A. Yates, R. Callard, and J. Stark, Combining cytokine signalling with T-bet and GATA-3 regulation in Th1 and Th2 differentiation: a model for cellular decision-making, Journal of theoretical biology, vol.231, pp.181-196, 2004.

J. Ye, R. S. Livergood, and G. Peng, The role and regulation of human Th17 cells in tumor immunity, The American journal of pathology, vol.182, pp.10-20, 2013.

Z. J. Ye, Q. Zhou, W. Yin, M. L. Yuan, W. B. Yang et al., Differentiation and immune regulation of IL-9-producing CD4+ T cells in malignant pleural effusion, American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, vol.186, pp.1168-1179, 2012.

N. K. Yoon, E. L. Maresh, D. Shen, Y. Elshimali, S. Apple et al., Higher levels of GATA3 predict better survival in women with breast cancer, Human pathology, vol.41, pp.1794-1801, 2010.

D. Yu, S. Rao, L. M. Tsai, S. K. Lee, Y. He et al., The transcriptional repressor Bcl-6 directs T follicular helper cell lineage commitment, Immunity, vol.31, pp.457-468, 2009.

Z. L. Yuan, Y. J. Guan, D. Chatterjee, and Y. E. Chin, Stat3 dimerization regulated by reversible acetylation of a single lysine residue, Science, vol.307, pp.269-273, 2005.

J. M. Zaretsky, A. Garcia-diaz, D. S. Shin, H. Escuin-ordinas, W. Hugo et al., Mutations Associated with Acquired Resistance to PD-1 Blockade in Melanoma, The New England journal of medicine, vol.375, pp.819-829, 2016.

R. Zeng, R. Spolski, E. Casas, W. Zhu, D. E. Levy et al., The molecular basis of IL-21-mediated proliferation, Blood, vol.109, pp.4135-4142, 2007.

J. P. Zhang, J. Yan, J. Xu, X. H. Pang, M. S. Chen et al., Increased intratumoral IL-17-producing cells correlate with poor survival in hepatocellular carcinoma patients, Journal of hepatology, vol.50, pp.980-989, 2009.

L. Zhang, J. R. Conejo-garcia, D. Katsaros, P. A. Gimotty, M. Massobrio et al., Intratumoral T cells, recurrence, and survival in epithelial ovarian cancer, The New England journal of medicine, vol.348, pp.203-213, 2003.

Y. L. Zhang, J. Li, H. Y. Mo, F. Qiu, L. M. Zheng et al., Different subsets of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes correlate with NPC progression in different ways, Molecular cancer, vol.9, p.4, 2010.

Z. J. Zhang, Z. J. Zheng, H. Kan, Y. Song, W. Cui et al., Reduced risk of colorectal cancer with metformin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis, Diabetes care, vol.34, pp.2323-2328, 2011.

W. Zheng and R. A. Flavell, The transcription factor GATA-3 is necessary and sufficient for Th2 cytokine gene expression in CD4 T cells, Cell, vol.89, pp.587-596, 1997.

Y. Zhou, Y. Sonobe, T. Akahori, S. Jin, J. Kawanokuchi et al., IL-9 promotes Th17 cell migration into the central nervous system via CC chemokine ligand-20 produced by astrocytes, Journal of immunology, vol.186, pp.4415-4421, 2011.

W. Zou, V. Machelon, A. Coulomb-l'hermin, J. Borvak, F. Nome et al., Stromal-derived factor-1 in human tumors recruits and alters the function of plasmacytoid precursor dendritic cells, Nature medicine, vol.7, pp.1339-1346, 2001.