Modélisation des écoulements à surface libre de fluides non-newtoniens

Abstract : The objective of this thesis is to develop a 3D numerical model to assess debris flow. These viscous flows, heavily loaded with solid matter, form when heavy rain occurs in mountains. Today, forecasts of potentially impacted areas are based on 0D, 1D and 2D numerical tools. However, these tools cannot fully represent the free surface behaviour of debris flows due to the approximations and assumptions on which they are based. Thus, this work utilises a 3D numerical code to study this phenomenon. A specific model is built with real field data. Several flow scenarios are studied and compared with a 2D numerical model. The results highlight the significant benefits of a 3D approach by providing information on the fine representation of flow dynamics over the catchment area. The model also predicts the impact of debris flow (overflowing on a road bridge) and the zones of deposition and spreading. It highlights possible congestion phenomena and reproduces flows in the channels by fully accounting for parietal friction, capabilities not provided by 2D models. Prior to this application, the 3D model was evaluated with five sets of experimental data to validate its ability to represent viscoplastic flows. Different types of flows are studied and are representative of those observed on real sites when debris flow occur.
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Nicolas Schaer. Modélisation des écoulements à surface libre de fluides non-newtoniens. Mécanique des fluides [physics.class-ph]. Université de Strasbourg, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018STRAD033⟩. ⟨tel-02166968⟩

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