Perception des sensations physiques et des émotions dans le comportement alimentaire : lien avec la consommation alimentaire et le statut pondéral en population générale

Abstract : Individual psychological traits can positively or adversely affect eating and weight control notonly among obese individuals, but also in the whole population. So far, the literature hasmainly focused on negative traits such as restrained or emotional eating. Yet, positive (oradaptive) traits such as intuitive eating and mindfulness might predispose people to eat morehealthfully and maintain weight. Intuitive eating is defined as generally eating in response tophysiological hunger and satiety signals, and not in response to external and/or emotionalcues, together with low overall preoccupation with food. Mindfulness is defined as nonjudgmentalawareness of the present moment.Our main objective was to quantify emotional eating, intuitive eating and mindfulness in alarge sample of adults from the general population (the NutriNet-Santé cohort) and to assesswhether they were cross-sectionally associated with food intake and weight status.In women, higher emotional eating was associated with higher consumption of energy densesnack foods, and in particular sweet-and-fatty foods. The presence of depressive symptomsexacerbated this association. In men, this association was found in those without depressivesymptoms only.We translated and validated an existing intuitive eating questionnaire into French, and thistranslated version demonstrated satisfactory psychometric properties.Higher scores on the dimensions “eating for physical rather than emotional reasons” and“reliance on hunger and satiety cues” were associated with healthier food choices whilehigher scores on the dimension “unconditional permission to eat” were associated with a lesshealthy diet. However, overall intuitive eating and its three dimensions were all inverselyassociated with weight status.Dispositional mindfulness was inversely associated with overweight and obesity in womenand with obesity in men. In addition, overall, all dimensions of mindfulness (“observing”,“describing”, “acting with awareness”, “non-judging” and “non-reactivity”) were inverselyassociated with weight status in women, while only the “observing” and “non-reactivity”dimensions were inversely associated with weight status in men. In line with this, mind-bodypractices, which can help to develop mindfulness, were also inversely associated with weightstatus.These results illustrate the importance of psychological determinants of dietary behavior andweight status. In particular, our results underline the value of considering positive behaviors,and not only behaviors at risk, for both primary and secondary prevention of obesity.
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Geraldine Camilleri. Perception des sensations physiques et des émotions dans le comportement alimentaire : lien avec la consommation alimentaire et le statut pondéral en population générale. Santé publique et épidémiologie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015USPCD106⟩. ⟨tel-02166459⟩

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