Optimisation du traitement du cancer du sein Triple-Négatif : développement des modèles de culture cellulaire en trois dimensions, efficacité de l'Olaparib (anti-PARP1) en combinaison avec la radiothérapie et chimiorésistance instaurée par les protéines Multi Drug Résistance

Abstract : Breast cancer is a very complex and heterogeneous disease. Among the different molecular subtypes, Triple-Negative (TN) breast cancers are particularly aggressive and of poor prognosis. TN tumours are characterized by a lack of estrogen receptors expression (ER), progesterone receptors expression (PR), the absence of Human Epidermal growth factor receptor 2 overexpression (HER2) of the frequent mutations on BRCA1 / 2 genes ("BRCAness" phenotype). In the absence of effective targeted therapies, many targeted therapies including poly-ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitors (anti-PARPs) are currently under development in preclinical and clinical studies. Based on the synthetic lethality concept, the anti-PARPs specifically target the BRCAness properties of TN tumors. In this context, these works were focused on the development of diagnostic tools for the optimization of TN tumours treatment with anti-PARPs. For this, firstly, 3D cell cultures formed with the Liquid Overlay technique as well as associated cytotoxicity tests were developed, from the TN breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and SUM1315. These two spheroid models were then optimized and standardized in a synthetic culture medium called OPTIPASS (BIOPASS). Secondly, the efficacy of a co-treatment combining anti-PARP1 Olaparib at low and high doses and fractioned radiotherapy (5x2 Gy) was analyzed on the two cell lines MDA-MB-231 and SUM1315 cultured in 2D and 3D conditions. These experiments clearly demonstrated a potentiating effect of Olaparib on radiotherapy (i) in presence of low doses of this anti-PARP (5 μM or inferior) (ii) at long term and (iii) in presence of the maximum fractionation (5x2 Gy). In addition, these two TN cell lines showed a heterogeneous sensitivity to the co-treatment. Thus, an in silico transcriptomic analysis revealed very different profiles of these highly metastatic and highly aggressive cell lines. Notably, the SUM1315 cell line presented a neuronal commitment, suggesting its cerebral metastatic origin. These promising results could open up new perspectives for the treatment of TN tumours brain metastases, which are very common in this subtype. Thirdly, in order to better characterize the mode of action of Olaparib on these spheroid models, a fluorescent derivative of Olaparib, Ola-FL, was synthesized and characterized. The analysis of Ola-FL penetration and distribution in MDA-MB-231 and SUM1315 spheroids showed a rapid and homogeneous distribution of the compound as well as its persistence after 3h of incubation, in all the depth of the spheroids and especially in the central hypoxic zones. Finally, the analysis of the co-expression of two major Multidrug Resistance (MDR) pumps, MRP7 and P-gp after the treatment of the two TN lines with Olaparib, revealed on 2D cultures, a relay type expression of the MRP7 and the P-gp. On spheroids treated with a low dose of Olaparib art long term (10 days), a basal expression of MRP7 and an overexpression of P-gp were detected in the peripheral residual cells of the spheroids. These results clearly highlighted the involvement of these efflux pumps in Olaparib resistance mechanisms, in these aggressive tumors. All the results resulting from the modeling of the action of Olaparib on MDA-MB-231 and SUM1315 spheroids suggest its greater efficacy at low dose and at long-term, especially in the hypoxic zones of the spheroids. This parameter might be probably at the origin of its potentiating effect with radiotherapy.
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Clémence Dubois. Optimisation du traitement du cancer du sein Triple-Négatif : développement des modèles de culture cellulaire en trois dimensions, efficacité de l'Olaparib (anti-PARP1) en combinaison avec la radiothérapie et chimiorésistance instaurée par les protéines Multi Drug Résistance. Cancer. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018CLFAS018⟩. ⟨tel-02166394⟩

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