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, 3 -Grandeurs simulées par LASER/F comparées aux grandeurs mesurées sur le terrain et les capteurs utilisés pour obtenir ces mesures, Tableau, vol.5

, ET) des six tilleuls argentés sur l'ensemble des périodes de simulations (P1, P2 et P3) et relative à la température de surface (TS) de deux zones de feuillage du Georges' tree sur la période 3, Tableau 5.4 -Grandeurs statistiques calculées pour la comparaison relative à l'évapotranspiration

, Les caractéristiques sont la surface de l'enveloppe projetée au sol (PEA), le volume, la surface foliaire totale (TLA), l'indice de surface foliaire (LAI), la densité foliaire (LAD) et le nombre de faces par couronne, Tableau 5.5 -Différences de caractéristiques relatives à la maquette 3D de la couronne du Georges' tree entre l'étude, vol.1

, 6 -Grandeurs statistiques calculées sur l'ensemble des périodes de simulation pour les comparaisons relatives à l'ensemble de la zone (encadré rose dans l'illustration) : flux de chaleur latente (LEzone), flux de chaleur sensible (Szone), rayonnement net (RNzone), rayonnement solaire montant (Solairezone?), Tableau, vol.5, p.115

A. Annexe and A. .. Données-en-entrée-et-paramétrage-de-laser/f,

B. Annexe, Données en entrée et paramétrage de RATP

C. Annexe, Capteurs météorologiques et physiologiques utilisés

D. Annexe, Comparaison de méthodes d'acquisitions d'arbres

E. Annexe, Qualité du nuage de points d'un arbre acquis au SLT

F. Annexe, Relations allométriques établies pour le tilleul argenté

G. Annexe, Maquettes 3D du bois des arbres étudiés

H. Annexe, Formules des grandeurs statistiques utilisées

I. Annexe and . .. Sensibilité, , p.192

J. Annexe, Données météorologiques utilisées

K. Annexe, Simulations de LASER/F à l'échelle du parc par rapport aux mesures 201

L. Annexe and .. .. Sensibilité-de-laser/f-au-paramétrage-d'un-arbre,

M. Annexe and .. .. Sensibilité,

A. Annexe, Données en entrée et paramétrage de LASER/F

, Les données en entrée nécessaires pour le fonctionnement du modèle LASER/F sont : -La maquette 3D de la zone de simulation -La composition et les propriétés physiques des matériaux -L'indice de surface foliaire pour chaque surface de végétation -Le forçage météorologique

, Le contenu des fichiers comprenant ces données en entrée est détaillé ci-dessous

?. Fichier, GEO contenant la maquette 3D de la zone de simulation

G. La-maquette-3d-utilisée-dans-laser/f-est-décrite-À-travers-ce-fichier, Une description particulière de chaque type d'objets présent dans la scène est effectuée (bâtiment, mobilier, terrain, végétation implicite). Le nombre de faces par objet est indiqué. Puis, chaque face d'un objet est décrite selon son type (toit, façade, quelconque, feuille implicite)

M. Fichier, MAT définissant la composition des surfaces

, // Altitude du point le plus bas de la scène

, // Nb total d'objets et de faces dans la scène (faces non obligatoires) batiment

, GEO est associé à un matériel (toit, mur, feuille, prairie, tronc, route, sol nu ?) grâce au fichier .MAT. Ce fichier permet de donner par matériel, le revêtement, la nature du sol, le nombre de couches constituant ce matériel et la nature et l, Chaque type de faces renseigné dans le fichier

R. Fichier, MAT décrivant les propriétés des revêtements

F. Dans-ce, MAT des informations sur le revêtement de chaque matériel sont décrites, telles que la profondeur racinaire pour les surfaces naturelles

M. Fichier, MAT décrivant les propriétés des matériaux

;. Numero and . Nom,

;. Numero and . Nom,

, Chaleur specifique (J/kg.K)

, Masse volumique (kg/m3)

, Indice Refraction solaire;Coefficient attenuation lineaire solaire

, Undefini;0.100000, p.1000

F. Le-dernier, MAT décrit les propriétés physiques (conductivité thermique, chaleur spécifique, masse volumique, indice de réflexion solaire, coefficient d'atténuation linéaire solaire) des matériaux constituant chaque matériel

R. Fichier, LAI décrivant la végétation

C. F. Lai, Les paramètres présentés ici ont été utilisés pour l'étude à l'échelle du parc. Pour l'étude à l'échelle de l'arbre un LAI de 11.2 a été utilisé pour les feuilles

, //geographic (=geodesic) Longitude (°)

, //geographic (=geodesic) Latitude (°)

, //Hauteur du forçage pour T et Q (m)

, //Hauteur du forçage pour le vent (m), p.25

, Température de surface (°C ou K) et altitude de la mesure (m)

, //Température profonde (°C ou K) et altitude associée (m), p.22

/. Rivière, °C ou K) et altitude associée (m)

, //Température des bâtiments

!. Paramètre-de and J. ,

, °C) -0.266e-3;1.3764;1500.! Paramètres de Jarvis : effet du VPD : gsmax = A1 VPD (Pa) + A2, A3=seuil 20.0;6.! Paramètres de Farquhar : Vcmax25°C (µmol CO2 m-2 s-1) = A1 Na (g m-2) + A2 52.0;15, 150015! Paramètres de Jarvis : effet température de la feuille : fgsPAR = f(LT, p.2

!. Paramètres-de-farquhar, Rd25°C (µmol CO2 m-2 s-1) = A1 Na, vol.2

G. Annexe, Maquettes 3D du bois des arbres étudiés

, Cette annexe permet de mieux visualiser, pour chaque arbre étudié dans le Chapitre 3, souspartie 3.1.2., son nuage de points SLT, sa maquette 3D de référence et la maquette 3D reconstruite par chacun des algorithmes : TreeArchitecture

D. En-fonction and . Lai, Ces graphiques illustrent que plus l'indice de surface foliaire diminue, plus le flux de chaleur latente diminue (max -104,19 W/m²). A l'inverse, une augmentation du rayonnement infrarouge émis (max 32,81 W/m²), du flux de chaleur sensible (max 26,38 W/m²), du flux de chaleur dans le sol (max 43,81 W/m²) et des températures (max 5,0 °C en surface et 2,4 °C à -8 cm) est observée lorsque l'indice diminue

, Ces tests n'ont pas été réalisés avec la dernière version de LASER/F datant de mai 2018. Les résultats obtenus sont donc amenés à évoluer avec la dernière version