La phase d’hyperextension (Sag) du rift de l’Océan Atlantique sud au Congo : milieux de dépôt, provenance des sédiments et paléoreliefs

Abstract : The purpose of this thesis was to study the South Atlantic rift system in Congo by focusing on (1) the dynamic of the upstream paleoreliefs (rift shoulders), (2) the stratigraphic architecture and (3) sediment routing of the pre to syn-rift sedimentary infilling. Detailed field mapping allows to characterize the geometry of the incised valleys, sedimentary environments of thier sediment infilling and to discuss the geodynamic implications of these incised valleys in terms of rift dynamic and control of sedimentary systems. These incised valleys were cut through the Precambrian Mayombe basement by alluvial processes shaping pediments during the stretching period of the rift and filled with middle Aptian siliciclastic sediments of the Chéla formation. The sediment filling consists of flood-generated sublacustrine gravity flow deposits interbedded with organic-rich lacustrine shales, overlying unconformably the basement. These deposits are organized into an overall transgressive depositional sequence, characterized by stacked of elementary fining upward facies sequences. Detailled facies analysis of cores permits to determine the sedimentary environments of the Pointe-Noire, Pointe-Indienne and Chéla Formation, developed during the hyper-extended (sag) rift phase. The middle Barremian Pointe-Noire Formation consists of organic-rich shale-prone deep-lacustrine fan facies intertonguing locally with shallow-water platform carbonate facies and gravity-flow resedimented carbonate facies of the Toca Member that were deposited in an anoxic deep-lake. The Late Barremian–early Aptian Pointe-Indienne Formation is characterized by facies heterogeneity. This Formation consists of sand-rich sublacustrine-fan gravity facies of Mengo member overlain by storm influenced mixed siliciclastic-carbonate ramp facies (Argiles vertes Member) passing upward to deltaic facies of Tchibota member. The middle Aptian Chéla Formation represents a widespread transgressive unit, characterized by lateral and vertical changes in facies and a variety of depositional environnements. It is made up of interbedded coarse-grained alluvial bedload facies and sub-lacustrine gravity facies at the base, overlain by lacustrine-marine mixed bay facies passing upward to sabkha facies, which in turn are capped by evaporites of the Loémé Formation. The sebkha facies records the late middle Aptian marine transgression on the Congo basin prior to the deposition of Upper Aptian evaporites of Loémé Formation. Well-log stratigraphic correlations permit subdivision of the middle Barremian to middle Aptian syn-hyper-extended rift-related deposits into three major depositional sequences that display retrogradation, progradation, and retrogradation stacking pattern, respectively. Detrital zircon and apatite provenance analyses provide a better understanding of sediment routing systems of the pre to syn-rift infilling, and paleorelief and tectonic evolutions during the Early Cretaceous times. The results show changes in sediment provenances and two different source areas. The Berriasian-Valanginian Pre-rift sediments of the Vandji Formation were derived from multiple and relatively distant source areas, located either in the South America and southern of Africa plate, thus supporting the existence of large intracratonic basin prior to the rifting, fed by prominent large-scale drainage system. located toward the southwest. In contrast to the Pre-rift sediments, the Barremian syn-stretched rift sediments of the Djeno Formation and the Aptian syn- hyper-extended rift sediments of the Chela Formation were derived from adjacent Precambrian Mayombe belt that underwent phases of tectonic uplift during the rifting. Consequently, this implies an abrupt change in sediment provenance and relief between the pre-rift phase and the Syn-rift phase and indicate the persistence of local sources, i.e. from rift shoulders, from the stretching rift phase to the hyper-extended (sag) rift phase.
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Sage Paterne Chandrich Kebi-Tsoumou. La phase d’hyperextension (Sag) du rift de l’Océan Atlantique sud au Congo : milieux de dépôt, provenance des sédiments et paléoreliefs. Sciences de la Terre. Université Rennes 1, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018REN1B056⟩. ⟨tel-02165971⟩

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