Etude des risques de colmatage et optimisation des procédés de traitement des doublets géothermiques superficiels

Abstract : The sustainability of geothermal systems using shallow aquifers for heating, cooling and hot water production depends on the possibility to ensure, over long time-scales, the production and the reinjection of groundwater in the aquifer. Clogging of the geothermal loop is a major issue affecting the technical and economic viabilities of numerous operations in France. The understanding and prediction of this phenomenon requires new methods of characterization and modelling of biogeochemical processes coupled to the operation of geothermal loops in heterogeneous subsurface environments. This thesis is thus the result of a new collaboration between the Géosciences Rennes lab and Antea group to identify the mechanisms at the origin of clogging phenomena and characterize their controlling parameters, in order to establish a risk assessment tool allowing the anticipation of clogging processes. The first part of the thesis describes the main clogging processes (biogeochemical, chemical, biological and physical). This synthesis is the result of (1) the study of the literature dealing with the clogging of water wells and (2) our feedbacks on the geothermal doublets identified and studied during this thesis. The second part presents the regional inventories of shallow geothermal systems impacted by clogging problems identified in different hydrogeological contexts in France. These inventories provide a large-scale perspective of clogging phenomena and allow to study the contexts associated with each type of clogging processes. In the third part, new methodologies for the in-situ characterization of biogeochemical clogging phenomena linked to manganese and iron oxidation are presented through case studies of sites affected by clogging issues. These interdisciplinary studies couple the measurement of hydraulic properties, chemical element concentrations and bacterial diversity, to identify the specific issue impacting the operation and to define its causes. The fourth part presents the results of an interdisciplinary field campaign carried out on a geothermal doublet impacted by a biogeochemical clogging process. This campaign documented the key components involved in mixing induced biogeochemical reactivity: flow distribution, chemical heterogeneity and microbiological diversity. Using PHREEQC, a geochemical model simulating observed kinetics of precipitation was developed in order to quantitatively explore the biogeochemical mechanisms favoring rapid clogging. Feedback from shallow geothermal systems operation has demonstrated the need for a reliable risk analysis methodology that allowed to anticipate the apparition of clogging processes at each stage of the project life (part 5). From the synthesis of the scientific & technical literature and the conclusions of the studies carried out during this thesis, the risk factors for the appearance of clogging phenomena were determined. A clogging risk analysis integrating these factors was implemented through the development of methods developed under Python 3. The methodology of the ARCADE tool (Analyse des Risques de Colmatage et Aide à la Décision) is designed to assess the risk and to inform users of good practices and preventive methods. These good practices for analysis and preventive methods are presented in the last part of this thesis.
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Luc Burté. Etude des risques de colmatage et optimisation des procédés de traitement des doublets géothermiques superficiels. Sciences de la Terre. Université Rennes 1, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018REN1B019⟩. ⟨tel-02165142⟩

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