Innover pour les services d’assainissement en zone tropicale : approche technique par filtres plantés de végétaux et accompagnement par modélisation participative

Abstract : Sustainable Develoment Goals aim by 2030, to « achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation », by « using safely managed sanitation services ». Sanitation service can be defined by its technical and social components, and their interactions. This thesis focuses on both treatment infrastructures and involvement of all the stakeholders into service definition. Cross analysis of French Overseas Territories (FOT) and Senegal contexts, has identified common constraints that weigh on sanitation sector in tropical areas. From treatment infrastructure point of view, these constraints lead to suggest treatment wetlands systems and particularly French vertical-flow treatment wetland (FS-VFTW) to easier sludge managment, as a relevant solution. Their adaptation for tropical climate is the subjet of the first axis of our work. It aimed at defining their adaptation in terms of design, plant choices and defining the treatment wetlands type to implement according to outlet requirements. A hundred of 24h sampling campains were performed on 7 full scale demonstration plants, accross the 5 FOTs. Results show that despite more compacity, the proposed design allows maintaining performances at least similar to those observed in temperate climate. Due to climatic and organizational constraints inn tropical climate, a statistical analysis has been done to point out the resilience and reliability of the systems based on regulatory selfmonitoring data. It highlights the fact that FS-VFTWs are more reliable than most of the conventional treatment processes when applied for small size communities. Their physical barrier (filter) and their lower maintenance requirement explain this observation. The second axis of our research is based on an observed lack of consultation between stakeholders during the sanitation planning phase, which is responsible for the construction of the sanitation system. In particular, the users, their needs and their constraints are poorly and badly taken into account. Companion modeling approach could create both a support (the model) for discussing technical choices, as well as the framework within which the stakeholders could exchange points of view and find a sustainable consensus. Such a process has been developed and implemented for sanitation planning in 2 areas (urban and rural) of Senegal. Focused on household population, this process has led to create a generic model for sanitation access, embodied as a role playing game, which include a significant part of expert knowledge. The relevance of such tools in the characterization of user needs has been evaluated. In addition, attention was paid to users' acceptance of the proposed service and its translation into a willingness to contribute
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Rémi Lombard-Latune. Innover pour les services d’assainissement en zone tropicale : approche technique par filtres plantés de végétaux et accompagnement par modélisation participative. Génie des procédés. Université de Lyon, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LYSE1035⟩. ⟨tel-02164777⟩

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