Amélioration de l'analgésie aprés sternotomie pour chirurgie cardiaque, par des stratégies postopératoires adaptées au patient : perfusion bi-latéro-sternale d'anesthésiques locaux, anti-inflammatoires non-stéroïdiens à dose réduite

Abstract : The treatment of pain after cardiac surgery with sternotomy remains to this day a challenge for the clinician. In these frail patients, non-appropriated pain treatment can alter the postoperative rehabilitation and increase metabolic, immunologic, cardiovascular, respiratory, and psychological postoperative complications. The goal of this clinical research was to evaluate:-the analgesic effects of bi-latero-sternal (BLS) block by a continuous infusion of ropivacaine, -the effect of the BLS block on the length of stay in intensive care and postoperative morbidity in patients with increased respiratory risk,-evaluate the analgesic effect of ketoprofen, the standard non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), at a conventional and reduced dosages.The two techniques were applied during the 48 hours following cardiac surgery.Tested (against placebo) on a standard population, the BLS continuous block decreased pain at mobilisation (dynamic pain) by 41%, decreased pain at rest, and morphine consumption (by 40%). It allowed an earlier postoperative first dietary and oral medication intake, earlier mobilisation and a greater patients’ satisfaction. On the other hand, it did not show any significant improvement of respiratory parameters (spirometry and arterial blood gases).Tested against a standard treatment in patients with increased respiratory risk, the BLS block did not reduce the length of stay in intensive care and in hospital, but it had beneficial effects on dynamic pain, patients’ satisfaction, the incidence of nausea/vomiting and of postoperative delirium. A benefit in economics terms is suggested by a secondary analysis.Tested against placebo in a low-risk population, the use of ketoprofen in full dose regimen, reduced pain at mobilisation and at rest, without increasing renal adverse effects or bleeding (as it could be feared with NSAIDs). We missed to demonstrate the ketoprofen efficacy at reduced doses. Ketoprofen may be recommended on a low-risk population, while it is insufficiently prescribed so far. The study of protocols using a reduced dosage potentiated by a loading dose is suggested.
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Vedat Eljezi. Amélioration de l'analgésie aprés sternotomie pour chirurgie cardiaque, par des stratégies postopératoires adaptées au patient : perfusion bi-latéro-sternale d'anesthésiques locaux, anti-inflammatoires non-stéroïdiens à dose réduite. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017CLFAS010⟩. ⟨tel-02164084⟩

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