Interactions insectes - micro-organismes entomopathogènes comme source d'inspiration pour la découverte concomitante de bio-insecticides et d'antimicrobiens

Abstract : Entomopathogenic microorganisms are natural enemies of insects. They infect their hosts by penetrating the body and producing insecticidal compounds. However, it has also been shown that most insects host multiple symbiotic microbes which perform many important functions like nutrition and defense. During the process of colonization, entomopathogenic microorganisms interact with these beneficial microbial species. Thus, we expect that interactions between insects and insect pathogenic microorganisms should trigger the production of insecticides and/or antimicrobial metabolites.In this project, 57 microorganisms were isolated from the cuticles of live, entomopathogen infected insects . Ethyl acetate extracts of each strain were evaluated for their antimicrobial and insecticidal activities on four human pathogenic microorganisms and Aedes agypti mosquito larvae. The screening highlighted several bioactive strains, and 6 were selected for further chemical investigations. Among the selected ones were two fungal strains of the Mucor genus, Pestalotiopsis theae and Isaria farinosa and bacterial strains of the Pantoea sp. and an Asaia sp genera. The chemical study allowed us to isolate 41 compounds, of which 10 were new: tetrahydrofuran and tetramic acids derivatives, or a macrolactone with an original skeleton among others. Some of those presented insecticidal and antimicrobial activities. The biosynthetic potential of two strains was also investigated by an OSMAC approach coupled to metabolomics analyses by UHPLC-HRMS2. The search for insecticidal and antimicrobial molecules represents a global challenge for public health, to face the increasing phenomenon of antibiotic resistance but also insecticide toxicity. This work demonstrated that studying specific interactions between entomopathogenic microorganisms and their target insects may lead to the discovery of new promising compounds of pharmaceutical interest.
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Seindé Touré. Interactions insectes - micro-organismes entomopathogènes comme source d'inspiration pour la découverte concomitante de bio-insecticides et d'antimicrobiens. Biochimie [q-bio.BM]. Sorbonne Université, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SORUS065⟩. ⟨tel-02163933⟩

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