Impact des facteurs maternels et paternels sur les résultats de FIV / ICSI et investigations génétiques des spermatozoïdes d'hommes infertiles

Abstract : Infertility concerns 8-12% of couples of reproductive age. Various medical treatments such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) are available to address this problem. However the rate of failure of these procedures remains relatively high.In the first part of this work the impact of maternal and paternal factors on the results of 194 IVF cycles and 586 ICSI cycles was studied. Results are mainly affected by maternal age, the number of oocytes retrieved and the number of mature oocytes collected. Neither paternal age nor spermatic parameters (number and mobility) are significantly associated with the failure of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART). Only the morphology of the sperm injected during ICSI influences fertilization rate.In the second part of this work apoptosis, DNA fragmentation and the chromosomal content before and after cell sorting with magnetic micro beads were studied in men with an abnormal level of sperm DNA fragmentation and in men with a constitutional chromosome abnormality. A significant decrease of apoptic spermatozoa with fragmented DNA and chromosome imbalance was observed. Thus cell sorting leading to the selection of better quality spermatozoa could become a reference method for ART.In a third part of the work a reliable protocol for the study of spermatic transcriptomes is designed.The development of these technologies will lead to a better understanding of the underlying causes ofART failure and thus increase the success rate.
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Sahar El Fekih. Impact des facteurs maternels et paternels sur les résultats de FIV / ICSI et investigations génétiques des spermatozoïdes d'hommes infertiles. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest; Université de Monastir (Tunisie), 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018BRES0088⟩. ⟨tel-02163923⟩

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