Contribution à la modélisation et à la commande de robots mobiles autonomes et adaptables en milieux naturels

Abstract : This work is focused on the conceptualization, the modeling and the genericcontrol of mobile robots when moving in off-road contexts and facing slipperyterrains, especially for very accurate tracking and following applications. Thisthesis summarizes the proposed methods and the obtained results to addressthis research issue, first for path following applications (absolute localization)and then for edge and target tracking applications (relative localization). A finalsection of this thesis introduces an adaptive robotic concept and its associatedcontroller allowing the adaptation of the pose (position and orientation) of thechassis with respect to the environment topography.For each application, this thesis introduces a panel of innovative control algorithmsfor controlling skid-steering, two-wheel steering and four-wheel steeringmobile robots. Each algorithm of the panel is described, in this thesis, infour steps : modeling, estimation, control and experiments.The first main contribution of this thesis deals with the slippage estimation.The latter is adaptive and model-based. It also includes the extended kinematicmodeling only or together with the dynamic modeling of the mobile robot toensure a robust estimation of the slippage whatever the speed of the robot, encountereddynamic phenomena or even ground characteristics.The second main contribution deals with the design of a generic control approachfor mobile robots when path following and target tracking. The proposedstrategy is mostly based on a backstepping method and is illustrated inthis thesis via a panel of control laws. When combining this proposed controlapproach with the slippage estimation described above, significant improvedtracking and following performances are obtained (in term of stability, repeatability,accuracy and robustness) whatever the encountered context.All algorithms have been tested and validated through simulations and/orfull-scale experiments, indoor and off-road, with different mobile robots.
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Mathieu Deremetz. Contribution à la modélisation et à la commande de robots mobiles autonomes et adaptables en milieux naturels. Automatique / Robotique. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018CLFAC079⟩. ⟨tel-02163767⟩

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