Structure et fonctionnement de la niche germinale chez un Lophotrochozoaire, l'huître creuse Crassostrea gigas.

Abstract : The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas is an alternative hermaphrodite mollusc with an annualreproduction cycle. Its gametogenesis is supported by energy reserves, store in a conjunctive storagetissue surrounding the gonad. Previous studies have shown the insulin system involvement in thisprocess closely connecting diet, energy reserves and gametogenesis. The functioning of earlygametogenetic stages stays unknown in the oyster. This work allows the identification of putative germstem cells (GSC) et progenitors on the basis of histological quantitative approach combined with agerm cells labelling by homologous antibody against Oyvlg (Oyster vasa-like gene). The maincomponents of the germinal niche have also been identified including a somatic cell, associated to theputative germ stem cell, with a heterologous antibody against BMP2/4 labelling. Above the study ofthe early gametogenetic stages regulation by insulin signalling, the genomic and transcriptomic-widescreening allows the identification of ligands, receptor et several effectors conserved in C. gigas. SixIRPs (Insulin Related Peptides) have been characterized which inform about the evolutionary history ofmolluscan IRPs. According to the expression profiles, in qPCR and ISH, Cg-mip123 and Cg-ilp may beinvolved in the reproduction process. These IRPs are able to bind the CIR (C. gigas Insulin Receptor)receptor whose sequence has been described. The insulin signalling effectors are also conserved in C.gigas and expressed in the gonad. To better understand the involvement of IRPs in the early stagesfunctioning, a food conditioning (unfed vs fed with Isochrysis galbana) has been done with oysters intheir first gametogenesis. The results showed that nutrient intake increases GSC and gonial mitosis.The involvement of insulin signalling has to be clarified.
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Maëva Cherif-Feildel. Structure et fonctionnement de la niche germinale chez un Lophotrochozoaire, l'huître creuse Crassostrea gigas.. Biologie animale. Normandie Université, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018NORMC282⟩. ⟨tel-02163506⟩

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