Métamorphoses et permanences des parcours professionnels en France (1968-2018). Pour une approche cohortale et sexuée des évolutions de l’emploi.

Abstract : Are we actually facing a fundamental destabilization of employment in France since the end of the “Trente Glorieuses” ? The point of this thesis is to question the idea of a contemporary time which would be described as a “deep dislocation of the wage earners” (Castel, 2009), and which would result in a major transformation of the professional paths from a generation of workers to another.  The empirical foundations of the idea of social progress reversion, in terms of employment, are examined on the basis of three dimensions of the professional paths : employment, unemployment, job insecurity and qualification. Their evolutions are apprehended by a quantitative approach, combining both transverse, lengthwise, gender-related and cohort-related outlooks. The professional paths of three cohorts of workers (1945, 1960 and 1975) are compared one to each other on the basis of INSEE’s Labour Force surveys (enquêtes Emploi) and on the Permanent Demographic Sample (Echantillon Démographique Permanent) datas. This thesis’ general hypothesis challenges the idea of an opposition between the professional paths of, in one hand, generations of the“full-employment” whom had entered their jobs during the “trente glorieuses” and on the other hand the later generations, whose careers are said to be marked by a general deterioration of their working conditions. The first part of this thesis questions the relevancy of this opposition between “full-employment” and “under-employment” generations : by highlighting gender effects, it puts forward the fact that, despite the massification of unemployment, the model of wage society is reinforcing since the end of the “trente glorieuses”, especially by expanding the employment norm to women’s work. However, the feminization of contract-based employment is highly linked to the rise of a derogatory form of employment – part time jobs. The second part challenges the idea of a sudden blast and a globalization of job insecurity. It reveals, though derogatory forms of employment had expanded widely throughout years and cohorts, that it is more of a new way of entering the first company or the first job, than a long-term situation which could undermine the professional paths. The third part focuses on the workers’ professional paths. It examines the idea according to which there have been a huge worsening of the conditions of career development throughout the cohorts of workers.
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Marion Plault. Métamorphoses et permanences des parcours professionnels en France (1968-2018). Pour une approche cohortale et sexuée des évolutions de l’emploi.. Sociologie. Université Paris-Saclay, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLV021⟩. ⟨tel-02162326⟩

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